Journal of ISSN: 2376-0060JLPRR

Lung, Pulmonary & Respiratory Research
Short Communication
Volume 2 Issue 3 - 2015
Pulmonary Tuberculosis Disease of Rich or Poor?
Sana Rashid*
University of Health Sciences (GD-PGMI), Pakistan
Received: February 02, 2014| Published: March 28, 2015
*Corresponding author: Sana Rashid, University of Health Sciences (GD-PGMI), Lahore, Pakistan, Email: @
Citation: Rashid S (2015) Pulmonary Tuberculosis Disease of Rich or Poor?. J Lung Pulm Respir Res 2(3): 00041. DOI: 10.15406/jlprr.2015.02.00041

Abstract

Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Pulmonary tuberculosis is an infectious contagious treatable disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. It involves lungs but can also spread and invade other organs like intestine, brain etc.

Signs and Symptoms: Systemic manifestations include low-grade fever, anorexia, fatigue, night sweats, and weight loss that may persist for weeks to months. The most common hematologic manifestations associated with TB are raised peripheral blood leukocyte count and anemia, Hyponatremia. Cough is the most frequent symptom referable to the site of lung infection. Early in the disease, it may be nonproductive, but subsequently there usually is production of mucoid or muco purulent sputum. Hemoptysis may also occur. Inflammation adjacent to a pleural surface can cause pleuritic chest pain; and dyspnea [1].

Previous Researches according to occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis in rural areas: Tuberculosis is among the oldest diseases and despite all the preventive measures taken still it is not only occurring but also taking some new forms like MDR tuberculosis. According to previous researchers various reasons were the cause of pulmonary tuberculosis among the rural areas. Like tuberculosis was occurring more in rural Nepal due to believes in traditional healers [2]. People in village in India were suffering from tuberculosis due lack of awareness about tobacco smoking hazards [3]. Another research was presented on the occurrence of tuberculosis due to poor sanitary conditions and over crowdedness leading to more passive smoking [4]. Another research showed the increase in occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis due to biomass fuel consumption [5].

Previous researches related to occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis in urban areas: According to a previous research the occurrence of T.B was more in young urban males due to poor living conditions and alcohol consumption [6]. A research in Canada showed the higher occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis in urban areas due to poor socioeconomic status and greater alcohol consumption [7]. Another study was conducted in New York city hospital which reported increased cases of pulmonary tuberculosis due to AIDS [8].

Discussion

We all know the basics of pulmonary tb. Its signs and symptoms, causes, spreading of infection but even after so many researchers have proved that pulmonary tuberculosis occurred more in rural areas then urban the question arise again and again about its occurrence. For once it was known as disease of the poor due to its higher occurrence in rural areas where there is more poverty, under nutrition, unsanitary conditions, lack of use of preventive measures, illiteracy, over crowdedness and biomass fuel consumption. However, now pulmonary tuberculosis is also occurring in urban areas at a high rate too factors leading to it are: environmental pollution, increased number of industries (cotton, plastic, glue etc), increase in alcohol consumption, smoking (it is considered fashion), poverty and over crowdedness (inc rate of daily used products leading to unaffordable prices which leads to poverty), increase in HIV positive cases etc.

Opinion

It is yet to be decided that whether global emergency (tuberculosis) is the disease of rich or poor. As it consumes many lives daily even after so much advancement in technology. More research is required to give final statement as its occurrence varies in developed and underdeveloped countries, rural and urban areas.

References

  1. AN Leung (1999) Pulmonary Tuberculosis: The Essentials. Radiology 210(2).
  2. Yamasaki-Nakagawa M, Ozasa K, Yamada N, Osuga K, Shimouchi A, et al. (2001) Gender difference in delays to diagnosis and health care seeking behaviour in a rural area of Nepal. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 5(1): 24-31.
  3. C Kolappan, PG Gopi (2002) Tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis. Thorax 57(11): 964-966.
  4. Mishra VK, Retherford RD, Smith KR (1999) Biomass cooking fuels and prevalence of tuberculosis in India. Int J Infect Dis 3(3): 119-129.
  5. Fullerton DG, Bruce N, Gordon SB (2008) Indoor air pollution from biomass fuel smoke is a major health concern in the developing world. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102(9): 843-851.
  6. … - Social science & …, 2009 – Elsevier
  7. DA Enarson, JS Wang, JM Dirks (1989) The incidence of active tuberculosis in a large urban area. Am J Epidemiol 129(6): 1268-1276.
  8. Handwerger S, Mildvan D, Senie R, McKinley FW (1987) Tuberculosis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at a New York City hospital: 1978-1985. Chest 91(2): 176-180.
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