Advances in ISSN: 2377-4290 AOVS

Ophthalmology & Visual System
Research Article
Volume 2 Issue 4 - 2015
Badminton Player’s Skills Improvement after Visual Training
Sepideh Karimian1*, Fatemeh Aghanasir1, Ebrahim Jafarzadeh pur1 and Ebrahim Abbasi2
1Department of optometry, University of medical Science, Iran
2Iranian Federation of sport, Iran
Received: January 17, 2015| Published: May 25, 2015
*Corresponding author:Sepideh Karimian, optometrist, University of medical Science, Tehran, Iran, Tel: 09123403702; Email: @
Citation: Karimian S, Aghanasir F, Jafarzadeh EP, Abbasi E (2015) Badminton Player’s Skills Improvement after Visual Training.Adv Ophthalmol Vis Syst 2(4): 00052. DOI: 10.15406/aovs.2015.02.00052

Abstract

In this study we try to show the effect of visual training on professional badminton player’s skills.
Keywords: Badminton; Visual skills; Hand eye coordination; Facility of accommodation; Facility of vergence

Introduction

There can be no doubt that that athlete’s visual skills (good or bad) have a significant impact (positive or negative) on their performance. Optometrist have demonstrated that visual skills like all physical skills can be taught, trained, practiced and perfected [1-5]. We are not talking about having clear vision, which is very important, but also about improving dynamic visual acuity, eye focusing and teaming skills, visual spatial perception, and visual processing speed, visual reacting and response, Hand-eye coordination and peripheral awareness [6-9].

Most players are similar in size ,speed and conditioning and all learn basic technique, but we have found one of the critical differences between athletes are their visual skills and visual abilities .it have proven in many researches and we can find it in many articles. Chances are that every athlete can improve in one or more visual skills area, i.e. dynamic visual acuity, visual recognition skills, depth perception, tracking or focusing abilities or even eye sight. Vision is the key of victory in all sports and vision performance exercises will become an integral part of athletic training in the near future [10-12].

Badminton is a multidisciplinary skill. A successful player need good physical fitness .but, hand eye coordination (HEC) and visual skills may be very useful for players. In our study, the eye works performance program has been designed to provide visual skills assessments and training for all athletes. Using the eye works testing protocol; each athlete’s visual motors skills and sport skills are measured and recorded. We had chosen 40 badminton players and train them for 10 sessions and every session had take 40 minutes .But because their differentiation of their skills and level of their sport, we focused on professional athletes who had similar sport levels and sport skills [13-16].

In this study we try to show the effect of visual training on professional badminton players `skills. We have decided to focus on trainings which are affected on facility of vergence and facility of accommodation and hand eye coordination.

Material and Methods

Seven female badminton players that have play badminton for at least 5 years participated in this study. Routine and basic ocular and eye examination was done for every subject. Vergences and accommodation facility and hand-eye coordination (HEC) was recorded for every subject at the beginning of this study. Specific training for development of vergences and accommodation facility and HEC was done for all subjects. Vergences and accommodation facility and HEC have been measured and trained for ten sessions (Charts 1-8).
Chart 1: Visual skills and performances have shown by these charts:
In these charts, Vertical lines shows the scores and Horizontal lines shows the Athletes
HCE: OD: Hand-eye coordination before training (blue line) and after training (red line) in right eye.
Chart 2: OS: Hand-eye coordination before training (blue line) and after training (red line) in left eye.
Chart 3: OU: Hand-eye coordination before training (blue line) and after training (red line) in both eyes.
Chart 4: Facility of Vergences: FAR: Facility of vergences at far before training (blue line) and after training (red line).
Chart 5: Near: Facility of vergences at near before training (blue line) and after training (red line).
Chart 6: Accommodation Facility: OD: Accommodation Facility in right eye before training (blue line) and after training (red line).
Chart 7: OS: Accommodation Facility in left eye before training (blue line) and after training (red line).
Chart 8: OU: Accommodation Facility in both eyes before training (blue line) and after training (red line).
Two badminton coaches separately evaluate the players ‘s skills .these skills include right and left drop, net and toss’’.
We focused on these visual skills:
  1. Dynamic visual acuity
  2. Eye tracking
  3. Eye focusing
  4. Peripheral awareness
  5. Visualization
  6. Visual memory
  7. Fusion flexibility and stamina
  8. Depth perception
  9. Eye-hand speed
  10. Eye –foot speed
  11. Anticipation speed
  12. Eye body speed
And then we tried to exercise some of these skills by using these practices:
  1. Vergence facility
  2. Accommodation facility
  3. Saccadic and pursuit
  4. HEC
  5. Visual acuity at far was measured using the standard Snellen chart
  6. Visual acuity at near was measured using the standard E chart
  7. Dynamic visual acuity was measured using the standard Dynamic Rotator
  8. Pursuit and saccadic eye movement was measured using the standard Wayne Saccadic Fixator
  9. Accommodation facility was measured and trained by using the (+,-) 2.50 lenses method
  10. Vergence facility was measured and trained by using the standard prisms bar
  11. Hand-eye coordination, Eye-hand speed was measured and trained by using standard SF
  12. Visual memory was measured and trained by using standard SF
  13. Stereopsis was measured using standard stereo fly test Peripheral awareness was measured and trained by using the standard PAT

Results

The test result indicates that training could benefit the athlete’s. It means our sport vision training program is developed to strengthen and enhanced the individual motor skills. We discuss our recommendation with athletes and their coaches and we measured their sport skills with collaboration with their professional coaches. The results show there is a significant (p<0.05) improvement in badminton players skills after visual trainings. The number of fouls in “right and left drop, net and toss” significantly (p<0.05) decreased after vergences and accommodation facility and HEC trainings (Table 1-7). Visual skills and performances (vergences and accommodation facility and HEC) show significantly (p<0.001) than sport skills.
Athlete NO.1
Before training
After training
Right hits
Fouls
Right hit
Fouls
Right Drop
20
10
25
5
Left Drop
23
7
22
8
Net
18
12
18
12
Toss
30
5
33
2

Table 1:

Athlete NO.2
Before training
After training
Right hits
Fouls
Right hit
Fouls
Right Drop
25
5
30
0
Left Drop
24
6
28
2
Net
22
8
25
5
Toss
30
5
31
4

Table 2:

Athlete NO.3
Before training
After training
Right hits
Fouls
Right hit
Fouls
Right Drop
22
8
26
4
Left Drop
20
10
23
7
Net
20
10
21
9
Toss
30
5
33
2

Table 3:

Athlete NO.4
Before training
After training
Right hits
Fouls
Right hit
Fouls
Right Drop
22
8
25
5
Left Drop
23
7
24
6
Net
22
8
26
4
Toss
29
6
33
2

Table 4:

Athlete NO.5
Before training
After training
Right hits
Fouls
Right hit
Fouls
Right Drop
22
8
28
2
Left Drop
24
6
25
5
Net
22
8
24
6
Toss
32
3
33
2

Table 5:

Athlete NO.6
Before training
After training
Right hits
Fouls
Right hit
Fouls
Right Drop
23
7
25
5
Left Drop
26
4
26
4
Net
22
8
24
6
Toss
32
3
33
2

Table 6:

Athlete NO.7
Before training
After training
Right hits
Fouls
Right hit
Fouls
Right Drop
21
9
23
7
Left Drop
22
8
23
7
Net
20
10
24
6
Toss
29
6
31
4

Table 7:

Discussion and Conclusion

Ocular accommodation and fusional vergences were improved more rapidly and prominently after visual training. Sport performances showed slower, but, significant (P<0.05) changes after visual trainings. It seems, sport activities are more complicated than visual tasks. Improvement in visual performances may be so critical for badminton players. A developed visual system may provide ``faster, more accurate and enough spatial and temporal information. This information may help the players to predict, estimate and judge the shuttlecock, racquet, net, court layout and opponent player. Therefore, HEC and visual training may be useful for badminton players. Evaluation of visual skills may be a powerful tool for talent finding or improving the sport skills of any players (Table 8).


Athlete

HCE

Vergence Facility

Accommodation Facility

Before

After

Before

After

Before

After

OD

OS

OU

OD

OS

OU

NEAR

FAR

NEAR

FAR

OD

OS

OU

OD

OS

OU

Athlete 1

75

72

88

85

82

92

6

11

17

19

25

25

20

25

26

23

Athlete 2

60

66

77

70

75

80

8

6

11

20

15

17

19

18

23

20

Athlete 3

73

70

85

89

81

102

11

15

14

15

17

22

16

25

22

23

Athlete 4

77

71

80

80

81

85

18

20

20

22

20

21

16

22

24

20

Athlete 5

80

74

90

95

77

100

11

12

16

16

20

18

15

20

20

15

Athlete 6

71

71

90

95

80

93

9

5

12

13

19

16

17

25

23

18

Athlete 7

60

70

83

85

90

96

4

9

12

12

9

11

8

12

12

10

Table 8: This table shows the scores of visual skills before and after training.

The professional athletes in the high-speed sport which demand superior skills in balance, precision and perception have exceptional visual prowess. Sport vision offers training techniques to help achieve the alpha brain pattern characteristic of achieving “focus” or “in zone “facilitating sporting excellence. Visual rehearsal program together with Bio-Feed Back Mechanism pushes Sport vision beyond simple mechanism (Table 9).

Sessions

Acc. facility

Vergence facility

HEC

NO.1

OD:20/OS:18/OU:15

Near:12/Far:11

OD:80/OS:74/OU:90

NO.2

OD:12/OS:23/OU:18

Near:15/Far:15

OD:73/OS:70/OU:100

NO.3

OD:21/OS:23/OU:18

Near:8/Far:8

OD:91/OS:75/OU:115

NO.4

OD:18/OS:26/OU:18

Near:10/Far:8

OD:95/OS:77/OU:100

NO.5

OD:19/OS:24/OU:19

Near:10/Far:10

OD:100/OS:84/OU:100

NO.6

OD:19/OS:20/OU:18

Near:10/Far:10

OD:98/OS:90/OU:102

NO.7

OD:21/OS:23/OU:20

Near:12/Far:12

OD:99/OS:90/OU:108

NO.8

OD:21/OS:21/OU:19

Near:12/Far:10

OD:100/OS:90/OU:110

NO.9

OD:23/OS:22/OU:23

Near:16/Far:10

OD:100/OS:90/OU:114

NO.10

OD:23/OS:22/OU:23

Near:16/Far:11

OD:100/OS:90/OU:115

Table 9: These 2 tables are just for one of our athletes’. We have 14 tables like this.

We have proven that visual skills increased by visual trainings and it affected on sport skills directly, but in high speed sports like badminton, some other special skills may affected on our results, some skills like the ability of “prediction” which is a complicated brain skills in an athlete that help him or her to predict the place of shuttlecock in every hit which has send to him or her, without even seeing it. These special abilities can be increased by practicing just like visual skills and affected on sport skills too (Table 10).

sessions
Right drop
Left drop
Net
Toss
NO.1
20
23
18
30
NO.2
23
17
20
33
NO.3
20
19
14
32
NO.4
24
25
15
32
NO.5
23
26
18
32
NO.6
24
20
18
33
NO.7
25
22
18
33

Table 10: Sport skills for athlete no.1.

Acknowledgement

I appreciate the time and detail provided by each reviewer and by you and has incorporated the suggested changes into the manuscript to the best of my ability. The manuscript has certainly benefited from these insightful revision suggestions. I look forward to working with you and the reviewers to move this manuscript closer to publication in the “Advances in Ophthalmology & Visual System magazine”.

References

  1. Edward BJ, Lindsay K, Waterhouse J (2005) Effect of time of day on the accuracy and consistency of the badminton serve. Ergonomics 48(11-14): 1488-1498.
  2. Torola AL, Toriola OM, Dhaliwal HS, Igbokwe NU (2004) Relationship between physical education student’s achievements in a French badminton service test and expert ratings of technique quality. Percept Mot Skills 98(2): 406-408.
  3. Cabello Manrique D, Gonzalez-Badillo JJ (2003) Analysis of the characteristics of competitive badminton. Br J Sport Med 37(1): 62-66.
  4. Neggers SF, Bekkering H (2002) Coordinated control of eye and hand movements in dynamic reaching. Hum Mov Sci 21(3): 349-376.
  5. Kimberky Jeffries-Rich Sanders (2003) optometrist give athletes vision of success.
  6. Lambert LD (2005) vision therapy-sport vision training neuro-optometric rehabilitation. optometrist .org
  7. Schor CW, Ciuffreda KJ (1983) Vergence eye movements: basic and clinical aspect. Boston, Butterworth, USA.
  8. Griffin JR, Grisham JD (1995) binocular anomalies: Diagnosis and vision therapy. (3rd edn) Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, USA.
  9. North RV, Henson DB (1992) The effect of orthoptic treatment upon the vergence adaption mechanism. Optom Vis Sci 69(4): 294-299.
  10. Mitchell Scheiman, Bruce Wick (2002) Clinical Management of Binocular Vision. Mitchell Scheiman& Bruce Wick (Eds.), (2nd edn) USA.
  11. (Getting in the Game: Sports Performance) from (Northern Virginia Doctors of Optometry website).
  12. (Summary of research on the efficacy of vision therapy for specific visual dysfunctions) by (Jeffrey Cooper, State University of New York, State College of Optometry).
  13. (Visual Skill and Pole Vaulting) by (Brian Risk, National pole vault chair for Canada).
  14. (Sport Vision Enhancement and Behavioral Optometry) from (AGAPE Optometry Center).
  15. (Vision therapy) from (A New Vision website).
  16. (Sport Vision) from (Eye Works website).
© 2014-2016 MedCrave Group, All rights reserved. No part of this content may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means as per the standard guidelines of fair use.
Creative Commons License Open Access by MedCrave Group is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://medcraveonline.com
Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version | Opera |Privacy Policy