Advances in ISSN: 2373-6402APAR

Plants & Agriculture Research
Conceptual Paper
Volume 2 Issue 4 - 2015
Genetic Diversity Studies for Grain Quality and Productivity Traits in Rabi Sorghum
Usha A1* and Rekha chithra2
1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Memorial University of Newfoundland , India
2University of Agricultural Sciences , India
Received:February 17, 2015 | Published: August 20, 2015
*Corresponding author: Usha A, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Memorial University of Newfoundland, India, 586101, Tel : 7097454344; Email:
Citation: Usha A, chithra R (2015) Genetic Diversity Studies for Grain Quality and Productivity Traits in Rabi Sorghum. Adv Plants Agric Res 2(4): 00060. DOI: 10.15406/apar.2015.02.00060

Introduction

Sorghum originating in tropical Africa is a crop with extreme genetic diversity. The grain productivity of Rabi sorghum in India is lower (750 kg/ha) than Kharif sorghum (1100 kg/ha) even though Rabi sorghum is highly valued because of its excellent grain and fodder quality. The varieties and hybrids developed did not become popular because of poor grain quality and shoot fly susceptibility.

To enhance grain quality, productivity and shoot fly tolerance of Rabi sorghum, prior information on the nature and magnitude of genetic diversity present in germplasm collection is a pre-requisite. An attempt was made in the present investigation to study the nature and magnitude of genetic divergence and also to identify divergent parents from distantly related clusters for hybridization programme.

A total of 100 Rabi sorghum germplasm including 20 land races, 10 exotic lines, 21 indigenous IS lines, 11 released (kharif and Rabi) varieties, 45 B and R lines and 3 speciality sorghum types were grown in a randomized block design with 3 replications during Rabi season of 2004-05 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur. Five randomly selected plants from each line were utilized for recording of observations on fifteen. Genetic diversity was studied using Mahalanobis D² statistic [1] and clustering was done following Tocher’s method.

The genotypes were grouped into 23 clusters (Table 1) indicating the presence of greater diversity among the genotypes under study. The maximum number of genotypes (46) were grouped in cluster I followed by cluster II (21), cluster IV (9), cluster VII (3) and cluster X (3). The rest of the clusters were of solitary types. The formation of solitary clusters may be due to total isolation preventing the gene flow or intensive natural/human selection for diverse adoptive complexes. These genotypes may be very unique and useful in breeding point of view.

Cluster No.

No. of Genotypes

Genotypes

1

46

Jevargi-L, D-Maldandi, Yannigar, Dodd Mogra, SVD-9662, Yarnal-L, IS-3420, Hattarkihal-L-3, IS-36348, Ramkha, BRJ-357, GRC-17-1, Katizapur-L, B.K. Chandki, H1D, IS-37257, IS-19248, IS-40766, IS-32248, Pop-sorg-Shiggov, M.H.Jola, G.M., Harnidagadi, Kovlagi-L, RS-585, BRJ-362, IS-37232, IS-4882, SSV-74, E-36-1, IS-4657, SPV-1516, 9B, ICSB-37B, IS-22464, IS-37283, BJMS-2B, SFR-2, Ravasab, Sweet Sorg, IS-18579, 116B, IS-4587, IS-23490, M31-2B, RSLG-262

2

21

SPV-570, M-35-1, CSV-216R, SFR-7, IS-13771, RR-9817, M148-138, SPV-489, RRJ-359, RS-29, BRJ-356, BJMS-3B, CSV8R, RS-615, BRJ-67, BRJ-364, BRJ-204, Kouta Aurad, RR-9818, CSV14R, BRJ-62

3

1

Sel-3

4

9

104B, P2B, ICSB83B, 53B, 401B, BJMS-1B, 296B, 117B, Swati

5

1

DSV-5

6

1

IS-4946

7

3

5-4-1, Nilgal-L, N. Maldandi

8

1

Chittapur-L

9

1

JP-1-1-5

10

3

IS-2312, IS-18551, Basavanamoti

11

1

DSV-4

12

1

Dadagi Solapur

13

1

IS-4703

14

1

SVD-9662

15

1

R-354

16

1

SPV-1546

17

1

Semiloose

18

1

Pop-Sorg-Shiggov

19

1

C-43

20

1

IS-33720

21

1

SPV-1588

22

1

BRJ-360

23

1

101B

Table 1: Distribution of 100 Rabi sorghum germplasm lines into different clusters.

Intercluster distances presented in Table 2 reveal maximum divergence between clusters XXII and XXIII (125.27) followed by cluster XXIII and XXI (115.73). The intracluster distance varies from 26.64 (cluster VII) to maximum distance of 30.4 (cluster I). This reveals the presence of divergent genotypes within the clusters.

Cluster

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

XIII

XIV

XV

XVI

XVII

XVIII

XIX

XX

XXI

XXII

XXIII

I

30.5

44.1

34.87

41.48

47.9

34.7

43.63

37.52

42.65

39.1

52.63

57

35.5

45.6

50.5

40.51

44.24

45.22

50.87

51.26

66.7

67.73

67.4

II

28.8

37.38

52.55

35.4

43.8

55.32

52.64

39.24

42.7

37.75

40

43.2

64.1

38.5

40.42

63.3

53.11

76.52

52.72

42.2

46.48

89.1

III

0

49.66

50.9

36.4

40.7

53.46

52.67

36.1

56.79

61

37.4

55.4

51.5

40.95

60.37

32.49

67.31

54.13

57.8

50.69

81.3

IV

28.13

63.3

35.3

67.64

55.25

53.37

54.2

60.59

63

50

38.1

57

61.46

48.03

55.92

48.36

60.03

78.6

86.05

47.8

V

0

48

48.6

38.74

18.82

42.9

26.81

25

37.1

75.2

35.2

25.92

65.37

60.92

80.66

45.15

34.1

45.19

98.6

VI

0

52.14

46.95

39.4

35.2

56.48

48

26.4

52.3

51.7

44.25

58.4

45.22

62.38

38.69

59.5

71.81

63.3

VII

26.6

39.73

50.52

45.9

58.76

66

38.2

70.1

58.1

33.95

62.05

43.95

67.19

55.5

68

57.61

94.1

VIII

0

32.57

47.2

48.79

55

35.5

58.7

48.4

30.35

37.83

57.29

51.07

55

69.8

71.28

78.5

IX

0

40.4

28.27

24

34.1

65.8

39.8

33.34

58.76

62.2

70.07

35.39

45.3

61.03

84.9

X

28.9

51.9

52

41.5

55.4

61.2

44.21

65.3

58.15

72.39

35.8

50.9

61.31

80.2

XI

0

32

52.1

70.6

38.9

45.08

66.72

67

77.64

49.1

44.9

52.97

95.6

XII

0

44.8

81.1

39.3

45.03

76.42

70.05

88.95

43.78

33.2

57.68

98.5

XIII

0

66.7

38.2

23.56

56.03

35.5

64.8

46.09

56.5

59.69

81.2

XIV

0

77.1

73

44.9

69.87

39.46

67.82

91.7

96.01

39.6

XV

0

33.58

58.46

47.62

74.37

66.58

54.6

51.32

95.3

XVI

0

55.6

43.34

71.3

54.76

50.6

45.99

95

XVII

0

62.61

29.67

79.43

92.7

89.62

61.8

XVIII

0

66.06

68.8

74.3

61.21

85.8

XIX

0

80.42

107

104.5

47.4

XX

0

51.5

72.11

84.4

XXI

0

39.65

116

XXII

0

125

XXIII

0

Table 2: Average D² values of intra and inter cluster distances among 100 Rabi sorghum germplasm lines evaluated during Rabi 2004-05 at Bijapur.

Among the 15 quantitative traits studied, the highest contribution towards the divergence was by plant height. Similar results were reported by Kukadia et al. [2], Dabholkar et al. [3]. Days to flowering, panicle weight, panicle length, number of primaries per panicle, dead heart percentage and grain yield were also contributed towards diversity. These results are similar to results of Arunachalam et al [4], Biradar et al [5].

Cluster XXII exhibited the highest mean for plant height, cluster XI showed highest panicle weight, cluster XX exhibited highest for number of primaries per panicle and seed bulk density. Cluster XX had highest seed reflectance, highest protein content in cluster 14 and cluster XV had recorded the highest grain yield per plant. It could be suggested that genotypes present in respective cluster with high mean performance for particular quantitative traits can be utilized in breeding programme to improve those traits (Table 3 ).

In the present study based on D2 values the genotypes were classified as highly divergent, medium divergent and less divergent pairs as indicated in Table 4. Among these maximum diversity was observed between the genotypes 401B vs SPV 570 followed by SPV 570 vs POP sorghum cv shiggav, medium diversity was observed between the Yannigar vs BRJ 67 and Ramkhe vs ICSB 83B, while very low diversity was observed between the genotypes E 36-1 vs SFR-2. Highly divergent pairs can be utilized for future hybridization programme for developing potential hybrids with high panicle weight and grain yield.

S No.

Traits

Genotypic pairs

D² values

I. Highly Divergent Pairs

1

401-B

Vs

SPV570

PW

34.63

60.8

1208.22

GY

22.84

39.64

2

SPV570

Vs

Pop-sorghum shiggov

PW

60.8

33.5

1141.81

GY

39.64

21.41

3

R354

Vs

CS3541

PW

59.47

38.87

1138.61

GY

53.4

21.53

4

SPV570

Vs

R354

PW

60.8

59.47

1117.26

GY

39.64

53.4

5

BJMS-1B

Vs

R354

PW

45.8

59.47

1090.19

GY

30.53

53.4

II. Medium divergent pairs

1

Yannigar

Vs

BRJ67

PW

25.87

56.4

585.75

GY

16.38

49.3

2

Ramkhe

Vs

ICSB 83B

PW

33.73

48

594.52

GY

27.53

36.78

3

Ramkhe

Vs

M31-2B

PW

33.73

36.77

597.9

GY

27.53

35.65

4

Ramkhe

Vs

BJMS-1B

PW

33.73

45.8

598.48

GY

27.53

30.53

5

Harni dagdi

Vs

Pop sorghum shiggov

PW

35

29.13

607.46

GY

47.07

21.41

III. Low divergent pairs

1

E36-1

Vs

RS585

PW

43.07

42.4

12.39

GY

40.79

38.6

2

E36-1

Vs

SFR-2

PW

43.07

43.27

14.85

GY

40.79

38.17

3

E36-1

Vs

IS4882

PW

43.07

35.67

20.78

GY

40.79

40.23

4

DSV-4

Vs

BRJ357

PW

71.57

27.73

20.52

GY

40.67

33.53

5

ICSB37B

Vs

96B

PW

44.2

44.83

19.7

GY

37.26

26.91

Table 4: Practical utility of divergent pairs.

Clustering pattern obtained in the present study indicates that no relationship was observed between the geographical diversity and genetic diversity. In order to select genetically diverse genotypes the material should be screened for the important traits viz., plant height, grain yield, days to flowering, panicle weight, panicle length and dead heart percentage.

References

  1. Rao CR (1952) Advanced Statistical Methods in Biometrical Research. John Wiley and Sons. J. N. Spuhler 12(2): 268-270.
  2. Kukadia MU, Desai KB, Tikka SBS (1980) Genetic association in grain sorghum. Sorghum Newsletter 23: 21-22.
  3. Dabholkar AR, Tikka SBS, Desai KB (1983) Factors contributing to diversity in sorghum cross. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 53: 498-503.
  4. Arunachalam V, Ram J (1967) Geographical diversity in relation to genetic divergence in cultivated sorghum. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 27: 369-380.
  5. Biradar BD, Parameshwarappa, Patil R, Goud SS, et al. (1996) Inheritance of seed size in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Crop Research 11(3): 331-337.
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