Journal of ISSN: 2378-3184JAMB

Aquaculture & Marine Biology
Short Communication
Volume 2 Issue 5 - 2015
Family and Species Composition of Fishes Caught from Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia
Mohd Azim Bin Mohd Khatib*
National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Egypt
Received:January 27, 2015| Published: September 10, 2015
*Corresponding author: Mohd Azim bin Mohd Khatib, Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, Tel: +60199847392; Email:
Citation: Khatib MABM (2015) Family and Species Composition of Fishes Caught from Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia. J Aquac Mar Biol 2(5): 00042.DOI: 10.15406/jamb.2015.02.00042

Abstract

The present study revealed that the biochemical constituent with respect to different maturity stages of Nemipterus japonicus fish is associated with reproductive cycle, storage and utilization of reserves. Gonadosomatic index N. Japonicus recorded high values (3.5 and 0.51) in May and low values (0.4 and 0.25) in February for female and male, respectively. The maturity stages was classified into 5 maturity stages as follow, 1) immature stage, 2) maturing stage, 3) mature stage, 4) ripe stage and 5) spent stage. The spawning season of N. japonicus extend from May to September. The biochemical composition in muscle, liver and gonad in both sexes are found higher in early stages of maturity and decreases during gonad maturation. The muscle had more fat and crude protein content during the immature stage. Early stages of maturation, hence offer greater food value in these species. With the advancement of maturity, a drop in the fat and soluble crude protein was observed, whereas a linear relationship with moisture was noted from immature to mature stage. The composition of muscle always demonstrated an inverse relationship with hepatic and gonadal composition. Highest crude protein percentage was in stage IV (72.0 ± 2.22) in ovary. The total crude lipid percentage of the ovary showed a gradual increase from Stage I (5.1 ± 0.47) to Stage IV (21.8 ±1.02).

Keywords: Family; Species; Fish composition; Marudu bay; Sabah

Introduction

Currently, there are various definition for estuaries, but generally, they are partially enclosed bodies of water where freshwater mixes with oceanic saltwater to produce a mixed and fluctuating salinity environment [1-3]. The estuaries can be perceived as an ideal environment for numerous aquatic species despite a constant change in salinity, temperature and turbidity [4-8]. Estuaries are recognized worldwide as main breeding centers and nurseries many fish species due to their highly diverse and productive macrofauna [9-12]. Hence, specific areas in estuaries such as mangrove forests and seagrass meadows are favorite places for estuarine fishes to spawn as they can ideally be used as sheltered areas for juvenile fishes [13-16].

For the record, there had been several studies on fish identification and composition in the estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia [17-23]. The findings from those studies can be used to help researchers and government authorities in finding better ideas and actions in improving estuarine ecosystem management in Peninsular Malaysia. Unfortunately, the information and studies about fish composition in the estuarine areas of Sabah and Sarawak are still scarce due to the lack of funding, logistic and expertise [24-26]. Realizing this, for the past few years, the government reacts by beginning extensive fisheries research in Sabah and Sarawak. As a result, Marudu Bay, one of well-known estuary in Sabah, had been selected for the study of fish composition.

The role of Marudu Bay as one of important fishery areas in Sabah cannot be denied as nowadays, many fishery activities such as capture fishery, cage aquaculture, mollusk culture and fish-product processing are operated there [27]. As a result, adequate and update information about fisheries status in Marudu Bay are needed in order for the authorities to manage the fish stocks effectively. Unfortunately, recent records showed that there was very little or no comprehensive information about fish composition in Marudu Bay [24]. The knowledge and identification of fish assemblage in Marudu Bay is quite essential as the study of fish diversity at there cannot be executed unless the study of fish composition had been done first. Hence the objective of this chapter was to identify and find the composition of fishes, up to the species level, found in the estuaries from Marudu Bay, Sabah, East Malaysia. This study will provide first sufficient and comprehensive data about fish composition in Marudu Bay, thus enabling further studies about fish diversity in the later chapter.

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted at Marudu Bay in the coastal waters of Kota Marudu, Sabah, East Malaysia (Figure 1). The coastline of Kota Marudu is short (70 km) compared to the other districts in Sabah, with only 4 km along the mainland, 33 km along lagoons and 33 km along islands. Monthly samplings were conducted between October 2012 and September 2013. The sampling activities were carried out during daylight when the tides were high. A medium sized motor boat with a 14 horse power engine was used as transportation to the sampling stations. Fish samples were collected by using gill nets. Upon being ready, the specimens were brought onto land and kept on crushed ice until analysis. The family and species identifications of the sample began by carefully looking at their morphological appearance. The fishes were identified by using a reference book [28] and fisheries manual [29]. The samples were then sorted according to the family and species level.

Figure 1: Geographical location of the sampling stations in the Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia.

Results and Discussion

In total 40 species of fish and crustaceans belonging to 29 families were identified from the estuary and coastal area of Marudu Bay, Sabah, East Malaysia (Table 1). In terms of species diversity, Carangidae (3 species) and Leiognathidae (3 species) were amongst the most dominant families. Seven families (Portunidae, Terapontidae, Serranidae, Clupeidae, Sciaenidae, Engraulidae and Scombridae) consisted of two species while the other 20 families (Ariidae, Centriscidae, Penaeidae, Gerreidae, Paralichthyidae, Nemipteridae, Dasyatidae, Sillaginidae, Belonidae, Mugilidae, Mullidae, Scatophagidae, Lutjanidae, Tetraodontidae, Eleotridae, Soleidae, Cynoglossidae, Squillidae, Sphyraenidae and Atherinidae) had only one species per family.

Family

Species (Scientific Name)

Local Name

1. Ariidae

Arius maculates

Ikan duri tompok

2. Carangidae

Atule mate

Ikan pelata

Scomberoides tol

Ikan talang lampai

Carangoides malabricus

Ikan demudok cermin

3. Sillaginidae

Sillago sihama

Ikan puntung-damar perak

4. Leiognathidae

Eubleekeria splendens

Ikan kekek mahkota

Leiognathus equulus

Ikan kekek gedabang

Secutor ruconius

Ikan sekiki india

5. Tetraodontidae

Lagocephalus gloveri

Ikan buntal pisang-perang

6. Paralichthyidae

Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus

Ikan sebelah kayu manis

7. Centriscidae

Centriscus cristatus

Ikan pisau lipat

8. Gerreidae

Gerres oyena

Ikan kapas laut

9. Serranidae

Epinephelus coiodes

Ikan kerapu bintik jingga

Epinephalus sexfasciatus

Ikan kerapu bebeh

10. Sciaenidae

Otolithes ruber

Ikan tengkerong panjang

Dendrophysa russselii

Ikan gelama-janggut tanda

11. Nemipteridae

Nemipterus nemurus

Ikan kerisi spina merah

12. Clupeidae

Sardinella melanura

Ikan tambam-sisik hujung hitam

Sardinella zunasi

Ikan tambam

13. Engraulidae

Encrasicholina devisi

Ikan bilis laut

Thryssa hamiltonii

Ikan kasai minyak

14. Terapontidae

Pelates quadrilineatus

Ikan kerong empat jalur

Rhynchopelates oxyrhynchus

Ikan kerong tompok

15. Belonidae

Tylosurus acus melanotus

Ikan todak banang

16. Dasyatidae

Himantura walga

Ikan pari ketuka tanjung

17. Scombridae

Scomberomorus semifasciatus

Ikan Tenggiri Papan kuning

Rastrelliger kanagurta

Ikan kembung borek

18. Scatophagidae

Scatophagus argus

Ikan kitang

19. Mugilidae

Liza tade

Ikan belanak tade

20.Mullidae

Parupeneus forsskali

Ikan biji nangka karang

21. Lutjanidae

Lutjanus lemniscatus

Ikan jenahak jalur kuning

22. Eleotridae

Butis butis

Ikan ubi muncung itik

23. Soleidae

Synaptura commersonnii

Ikan lidah-daun tirus

24. Cynoglossidae

Cynoglossus bilineatus

Ikan lidah pasir

25. Sphyraenidae

Sphyraena putnamae

Ikan alu-alu gigi gergaji

26. Atherinidae

Atherinomorus duodecimalis

Ikan paku-renyau perak

27. Portunidae

Portunus pelagicus

Ketam bunga

Scylla serrata

Ketam nipah

28. Squillidae

Harpiosquilla harpax

Udang lipan

29. Penaeidae

Metapenaeus ensis

Udang pasir

Table 1: List of fish and crustacean species recorded from estuary and coastal area of Marudu Bay, Sabah.

Based on Table 2, it can be said that each study used different types of fishing gear, resulting in species diversity differences. It is understood that the types of fishing gears (depending on the manpower and logistics) and also the time of fishing (during high or low tide; day or night) can be attributed as the main reasons for this diversity [23]. The present and previous studies also showed that neither fish larvae or juveniles , which were always abundant in the estuary areas, were caught during sampling as they can simply pass through the mesh net, implying that only big and mature fish were caught during sampling. Therefore, the collection of fish larvae and juveniles for more detailed studies of fish fauna in estuary areas can only be achieved by using suitable sampling gears. For example, a plankton net or bongo net have more suitable features such as micro mesh sizes and a fixed main frame for trapping small fish [19, 23].

S. No

Location

Fish Classification

Type Of Gears

Source

Family

Species

1

Marudu Bay (Malaysia)

29

40

Gill net

Present study

2

Sungai Pulai seagrass beds (Malaysia)

37

72

Trammel net

Jimmy [23]

3

Tanjung Pelepas (Malaysia)

30

47

Trammel net

Arshad et al. [21]

4

Merchang estuary and seagrass areas (Malaysia)

19

32

Trammel net and cast net

Suryana [20]

5

Mengkabong Bay (Malaysia)

40

91

Trammel net, gill net and cast net

Mazlan et al. [19]

6

Bangrong estuary (Thailand)

48

95

Push net and gill net

Poovichiranon & Satapoomin [30]

7

Gulf of Thailand (Thailand)

29

38

Trawl net

Sudara et al. [31]

8

North Bais Bay (Philippines)

48

49

Beam trawl

Dollar [32]

Table 2: Comparison table of fish classification (total number by family and species) and types of gears that were used to catch fish between the present study and previous regional studies.

A previous study in Mengkabong Bay, Sabah, found 91 fish species belonging to 40 families [19]. They used three types of nets including a trammel net, gill net and cast net to catch the fish while our present study sampled fish by only using a gill net. The use of multiple types of nets may have contributed to the higher occurrence of species diversity and abundance than our present study as the practice of using several fishing gears at the same time can potentially lead to a higher catch rate of fish [19]. From this, we can suggest that it is a good idea to use various net types whenever commencing fish sampling as it can yield sufficient findings in terms of fish diversity and distribution.

Trammel and gill nets are considered to be more popular than other fishing gears for fish sampling as indicated in Table 2 where five out of seven previous studies used these nets as main fishing gears [19,21,20,23,30]. The yield from using these nets can be quite good for showing fish diversity and distribution of the targeted areas. Evidence can be observed by looking at the structures of these net, which have multiple mean mesh sizes that enable it to trap various fish species with varied body sizes. The passive principal of operation of trammel and gill nets involves casting instead of towing which can prevent much of the fish fauna from extinction as these nets only trap those that try to pass them.

Instead of using small nets, the neighboring countries of Malaysia such as Thailand and Philippines use big nets like trawl nets [31] and beam trawls [32] as the main method of sampling fish. The results from those studies were not much different from the present study as observed from Table 4.2. The number of families and species obtained were 29 families, 38 species [31] and 48 families, 49 species [32], respectively, almost close with the present study in which 29 families and 40 species were obtained. The degree of fish family and species diversity that were recorded from those studies should be distinctively higher than the present study, considering the fact that gill nets are a passive fishing gear while trawl nets and beam trawls are active fishing gears. However, this was not the case as the main reason lies on the operation of those nets. The trawling operation by trawl nets and beam trawls indiscriminately sweep all forms of fishes (juveniles and adults) found in the study areas, with a high chance of getting a high catch yield of only several dominant species, thus ignoring other less dominant species that are scattered in the study areas [23]. Due to this inefficiency, it is suggested that the use of trawl nets should be limited and instead, passive fishing gears should be encouraged in any fish sampling activities to ensure better results in the observations of fish diversity. In conclusion, further detailed studies on the family and species composition of the fish and crustacean are needed from more geographical locations of Malaysia for fisheries management in these waters.

References

  1. Gunter G (1967) Some relationships of estuaries to the fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Lauff GH (Ed.), American Association or the Advancement of Science, Estuaries Washington D.C, USA, pp. 621-638.
  2. Sheridan PF (1992) Comparative habitat utilization by estuarine macrofauna within the mangrove ecosystem of Rookery Bay, Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science 50(1): 21-39.
  3. Micheli F, Peterson CH (1999) Estuarine vegetated habitats as corridors for predator movements. Conservation Biology 13(4): 869-881.
  4. Bennett BA (1989) A comparison of the fish communities in nearby permanently open, seasonally open and normally closed estuaries in the south-western Cape, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 8(1): 43-55.
  5. Potter IC, Hyndes, GA, Baronie FM (1993) The fish fauna of a seasonally closed Australian estuary. Is the prevalence of estuarine-spawning species high? Marine Biology 116(1): 19-30.
  6. West RJ, King RJ (1996) Marine, brackish, and freshwater fish communities in the vegetated and bar shallows of an Australian coastal river. Estuaries 19: 31-41.
  7. Gray CA, McElligott DJ, Chick RC (1996) Intra- and inter-estuary differences in assemblages of fishes associated with shallow seagrass and bare sand. Marine and Freshwater Research 47(5): 723-735.
  8. Chang CW, Iizuka Y (2012) Estuarine use and movement patterns of seven sympatric Mugilidae fishes: The Tatu Creek estuary, central western Taiwan. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 106: 121-126.
  9. Williams AB (1955) A survey of North Carolina shrimp nursery grounds. Journal of the Mitchell Society 71(2): 200-207.
  10. Boesch DF, Turner RE (1984) Dependence of fishery species on salt marshes: The role of food and refuge. Estuaries 7(4): 460-468.
  11. National Research Council (NRC) (1995) Understanding Marine Diversity: A Research Agenda for the Nation. National Academy Press, Washington DC.
  12. Butler AJ, Jernakoff P (1999) Seagrass in Australia: Strategic Review and Development of an R&D Plan. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
  13. Hutchings PA, Recher HF (1974) The fauna of Careel Bay with comments on the ecology of mangrove and sea-grass communities. Australian Zoologist 18: 99-128.
  14. Turner RE (1977) Intertidal vegetation and commercial yields of penaeid shrimp. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106(5): 411-416.
  15. Orth RJ, Heck KL, van Montfrans J (1984) Faunal communities in seagrass beds: A review of the influence of plant structure and prey characteristics on predator-prey relationships. Estuaries 7(4): 339-350.
  16. Minello T (1999) Nekton densities in shallow estuarine habitats of Texas and Louisiana and the identification of essential fish habitat. In: Benaka LR (Ed.), Fish Habitat: Essential Fish Habitat and Rehabilitation, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, USA, pp. 43-75.
  17. Sasekumar A, Leh CMU, Chong VC, Rebecca D, Audrey ML (1989) The Sungai Pulai (Johor)-A unique mangrove estuary. In: Phang SM, et al. (Eds.), Proc 12th Annual Seminar of the Malaysian Society of Marine Science. A research priority for marine science in the 90’s of Malaysia. Malaysian Society Marine Sciences, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. 280.
  18. Rajuddin MKM (1992) Species composition and size of fish in seagrass communities of Peninsular Malaysia. In: Chou LM & Wilkinson CR (Eds.), Third ASEAN Science and Technology Week Conference Proceedings, volume 6. Marine science: Living Coastal resources. Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore and national Science and Technology Board, Singapore.
  19. Mazlan AG, Japar SB, Robecca J, Samat A (1996) Komuniti ikan dari hamparan rumput laut di Teluk Mengkabong, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor.
  20. Suryana Y (1997) Komuniti ikan di kawasan hamparan rumput laut dan kawasan tiada hamparan rumput laut di Sungai Merchang, Terengganu. Final year project, Bachelor of Science Fishery. Fakulti Sains Gunaan dan Teknologi, Universiti Kolej Universiti Putra Malaysia, Terengganu, Malaysia.
  21. Arshad A, Japar SB, Muta Harah Z (2001) Fishes associated with seagrass habitat. In: Japar SB, et al. (Eds.), Aquatic resource and Environmental Studies of the Straits Malacca: Current Research and Reviews. Malacca Straits Research and Development Centre (MASDEC), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, pp. 81-98.
  22. Ho KW (2002) Species Composition, Abundance, Size and Feeding Habits of The Fishes collected from Sg. Pulai seagrass beds. Final year project, Bachelor of Science (Honours) Biology. Biology Department, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
  23. Jimmy AA (2007) Fishes of the Sungai Pulai seagrass beds, Johore. Thesis draft, Master of Science, Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
  24. Biusing ER (2001) Assessment of Coastal Fisheries in the Malaysian-Sabah portio of the Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion (SSME). WWF Malaysia, Buhavan Infotech, Sabah, Malaysia.
  25. Rayner SG (2001) Investment Prospects and Potential in the Fisheries Sector in Sabah. Fisheries Department of Sabah, Malaysia.
  26. Jakobsen F, Hartstein N, Frachisse J, Golingi T (2007) Sabah shoreline management plan (Borneo, Malaysia): Ecosystems and pollution. Ocean & Coastal Management 50(1-2): 84-102.
  27. Yusoff FM, Ibrahim FH, Abd AN (2012) Colour of Kota Marudu. Universiti Putra Malaysia Press, Sabah, Malaysia.
  28. Ambak MA (2010) Fishes of Malaysia. UMT Press, Terengganu.
  29. Rumpet R, Awang D, Musel J, Biusing ER (1997) Distribution, Abundance and Biological Studies of Economically Important Fishes in the South China Sea, Area II: Sarawak, Sabah and Brunei Darussalam Waters. Fisheries Bulletin 8: 353-361.
  30. Poovachiranon S, Satapoomin U (1994) Occurrence of fish fauna associated in mangrove-seagrass habitats during the wet season, Phuket, Thailand. Proceedings, third ASEAN-Australia symposium on living coastal resources volume 1. In: Sudara S, et al. (Eds.), Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia, pp. 465-470.
  31. Sudara S, Satumanatpan S, Nateekanjanalarp S (1992) Seagrass fish fauna in the Gulf of Thailand. Proc 3rd ASEAN Science and Technology Week Conference, pp. 321-326.
  32. Dollar MLL (1991) A survey on the fish and crustacean fauna of the seagrass bed in North Bais Bay, Negros Oriental, Philippines. In: Angel C (Eds.), Regional Symposium on Living Resources in Coastal Areas Manila, Philippines. University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, pp. 367-377.
© 2014-2016 MedCrave Group, All rights reserved. No part of this content may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means as per the standard guidelines of fair use.
Creative Commons License Open Access by MedCrave Group is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://medcraveonline.com
Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version | Opera |Privacy Policy