Advances in ISSN: 2373-6402APAR

Plants & Agriculture Research
Opinion
Volume 3 Issue 1 - 2016
Genomic Approaches for Unravelling the Potentials of Crop Wild Relatives
Robert Thangjam*
Department of Biotechnology, Mizoram University, India
Received: January 11, 2016 | Published: January 13, 2016
*Corresponding author: Robert Thangjam, Department of Biotechnology, Mizoram University, Aizawl - 796004, Mizoram, India, Tel: +91 9436352386; Email:
Citation: Thangjam R (2016) Genomic Approaches for Unravelling the Potentials of Crop Wild Relatives. Adv Plants Agric Res 3(1): 00082. DOI: 10.15406/apar.2016.03.00082

Opinion

Crop wild relatives (CWR) are genetically related to the cultivated crops and thus can provide useful gene for the improved breeding of crops. Thus CWRs serve as potential genetic resources that can provide solution to the various challenges of the modern crops arising out of global climate change and diseases. The importance and utility of CWRs have been well documented with several recent studies focussing on its characterization and conservation [1-5].

Advances in the field of genomics and sequencing technologies have enable the integration of these technologies with conventional breeding knowledge for the characterization of wild crop populations and efficient utilization. Using genomic approaches it is possible to identify novel genetic resources from the CWRs [6] and also to isolate the existing genetic diversity from the closely-related domesticated crops [7]. Using available model genome sequences such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Musa acuminata, etc. as referral sequence several CWRs can be characterized for understanding the complex domesticated species. Using the recent technologies made in the field of DNA sequencing techniques better understanding of the crops and their wild relatives can be achieved at the genome level [8]. By referring these already sequences genomes as referral models or by resequencing their wild relatives several other crops or species can be characterized using comparative and functional genomics [9].

Whole chloroplast genome sequencing of the CWRs and their analysis also reveal the evolutionary and genetic relationship of the closely related species and also the domesticated crops. For such studies approaches for direct mapping of sequences to a reference chloroplast genome [9] or de novo assembly the reads first and subsequent isolation of chloroplast contigs by homology search [10] can be used.

Transcriptome analysis (TA) of the CWRs will also help in the interpretation of their functional elements of the genome [11,12]. Using the next-generation deep sequencing of the CWR transcriptomes useful genetic information could be obtained for improvement of economically viable crops such as banana or potato [13,14].

Thus it can be concluded that CWRs are the one of the most potential resources to overcome the problems of global food security and sustainable crop production. However in order to realize their potential it is imperative to fully understand and characterize these CWRs using genomics and other modern biological tools. Rapid loss of habitats compounded with stresses and diseases and neglect of the CWRs is fast becoming an important issue to address before these hugely important genetic resources are lost forever.

Priority crops and their region of high diversity should be urgently identified and appropriate actions should be taken up at the local as well international level for their conservation and proper utilization.

References

  1. Maxted N, Kell S (2009) Crop wild relative. In: Maxted N & Dulloo E (Eds.), Conserving Plant Genetic Diversity for Use now and in the Future, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, Crop Wild Relative Specialist Group p. 7-8.
  2. Kell S (2012) Crop wild relative. In: Kell S & Maxted N (Eds.) Novel Characterization of Crop Wild Relative and Landrace Resources as a Basis for Improved Crop Breeding, PGR Secure—EU Seventh Framework Programme, THEME KBBE.2010.1.1-03, GA 266394. p. 4-7.
  3. Rubio Teso ML, Torres ME, Parra-Quijano M, Iriondo JM (2012) Prioritization of crop wild relatives in Spain. Crop Wild Relatives 8:18-21.
  4. Fitzgerald TL, Shapter FM, McDonald S, Waters DLE, Chivers IH, et al. (2011) Genome diversity in wild grasses under environmental stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(52): 21139-21144.
  5. Brozynska M, Furtado A, Henry RJ (2015) Genomics of crop wild relatives: expanding the gene pool for crop improvement. Plant Biotechnol J.
  6. Brozynska M, Omar ES, Furtado A, Crayn D, Simon B, et al. (2014) Chloroplast genome of novel rice germplasm identified in northern Australia. Trop Plant Biol 7(3-4): 111-120.
  7. Krishnan S, Waters DLE, Henry RJ (2014) Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome. PLoS ONE, 9(6): e98843.
  8. Edwards MA, Henry RJ (2011) DNA sequencing methods contributing to new directions in cereal research. Journal of Cereal Science 54(3): 395-400.
  9. Nock C, Waters DLE, Edwards MA, Bowen S, Rice N, et al. (2011) Chloroplast genome sequence from total DNA for plant identification. Plant Biotechnol J 9(3): 328-333.
  10. McPherson H, van der Merwe M, Delaney SK, Edwards MA, et al. (2013) Capturing chloroplast variation for molecular ecology studies: a simple next generation sequencing approach applied to a rainforest tree. BMC Ecology 13: 8.
  11. Wang Y, Chung SJ, Song WO, Chun OK (2011) Estimation of daily proanthocyanidin intake and major food sources in the U.S. diet. J Nutr 141(3): 447-452.
  12. Wang Z, Gerstein M, Snyder M (2009) RNA-Seq: a revolutionary tool for transcriptomics. Nat Rev Genet 10(1): 57-63.
  13. Hobert O (2010) The impact of whole genome sequencing on model system genetics: get ready for the ride. Genetics 184(2): 317-319.
  14. Pachuau L, Atom AD, Thangjam R (2014) Genome classification of Musa cultivars from northeast India as revealed by ITS and IRAP markers. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 172(8): 3939-3948.
© 2014-2016 MedCrave Group, All rights reserved. No part of this content may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means as per the standard guidelines of fair use.
Creative Commons License Open Access by MedCrave Group is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://medcraveonline.com
Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version | Opera |Privacy Policy