Advances in ISSN: 2373-6402APAR

Plants & Agriculture Research
Research Article
Volume 3 Issue 3 - 2016
Genetic Diversity Assessment of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Germplasm based on Agro-morphological Traits
Saba Rashid*, Mudassar Abbas, Qudsia Bano, Ahsan Javed and Atif Akram
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Received: November 25, 2015 | Published: March 26, 2016
*Corresponding author: Saba Rashid, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan, Email:
Citation: Rashid S, Abbas M, Bano Q, Javed A, Akram A (2016) Genetic Diversity Assessment of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Germplasm based on Agro-morphological Traits. Adv Plants Agric Res 3(3): 00097. DOI: 10.15406/apar.2016.03.00097

Abstract

Tomato germplasm is a rich wellspring of Genetic differences. Examination work began from the month of March in NARC, Islamabad Pakistan. It’s no longer continuing nearly Sixteen weeks here. Being a Plant Breeding and hereditary qualities understudy my principle center was on rearing and advancement of different assortments inside of the genotype. Right from the begin I was appointed to take a shot at Agro-Morphological Traits of Tomato. Every one of the examination with respect to Agro-Morphological Traits was completed to concentrate on the conduct Tomato’s distinctive genotypes. Distinctive sorts of test were did to perform my examination work in innovative research centers of PMAS-AAUR. Every one of these regions of my examination venture was profoundly fascinating. To sum things up, I got a fortune of commonsense information by doing this examination. The goal of the present study was to describe tomato germplasm through morphological attributes. This study will be useful for varietal improvement, half breed seed creation and distinguishing proof of attractive genotypes from germplasm.

Introduction

Tomato is a standout amongst the most well-known vegetable developed in the globe. Tomatoes have a place with the plant family Solanaceae, termed as nightshade gang. The tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) is local to the Andes district of South America [1]. Tomato is one of the real vegetables with 4.4 million ha zone under development and 115 million tons creation all inclusive [2]. Tomato possesses a famous position in vegetable harvests in Pakistan and is developed on a zone of 53.1 thousand hac with an expected generation of 536.2 tons for each annum and normal yield of 10.1tons for every hectare [3]. Notwithstanding spring and summer season products, off-season or fall yield of tomato is additionally developed in ice free regions of Pakistan including Dargai, butkhela, Malakand Agency (KPK), Badin (Sindh) and Kattaha Sugral Khusab (Punjab). Regardless of development in zone, the normal yield of tomato is low in Pakistan when contrasted with 27.43tons for every hectare in real tomato creating nations of the world [3].

In an experiment leaf shape parameters [leaf area (LA), length (L), width (W), shape factor (SF)] were determined by an image analysis system. During samplings, leaf area index (LAI) was measured non-destructively. Significant year and sampling effects were found for all traits determined. With the progress of the growing season, leaves became smaller (LA, W, and AR were decreased) and rounded. Tomato domestication dramatically increased fruit yield, and changes mainly occurred in fruit morphology or plant development. The most obvious evolution has been the massive increase in fruit size [4,5].

Tomato fruit provides especially favorable material for size study, since there are enormous differences between the small one gram fruits of “Red Currant” (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium) and the comparatively gigantic 100-400 gram fruits of some commercial varities of L.esculentum [6]. Most cultivars produced an average of about four traits per cluster. The small-fruited cultivars of ‘Campari’ and ‘Aranca’ had cluster of 5.3 and 6.4 fruits per cluster, respectively [7]. Similarly difference in internodal lengths in different lines (genotypes) as they show 4.03 cm that is higher internodal length and 4.47, 3.69 and 2.29 produced an average of about four fruits per cluster. Similarly differences in internodal lengths in different lines reported that total number of clusters produced per plant was highest for ‘Aranca’ at 33.4 clusters [6].

Tomato is fleeting enduring utilized as yearly. Development propensities for tomato plants are both determinate and uncertain. Vague genotypes forms into vines that are never finish off and keeps on creating organic product until executed by ice and deliver inflorescence after each three leaves, while determinate genotypes creates a predetermined number of inflorescence on every hub and axillary buds are creates on the base of the stem creating a shaggy appearance. Determinate, or hedge sort bear an organic product at the same time and finish off at a particular stature, every shoot on the determinate plant closes in a group, and thus a natural product cluster [8] this kind of tomato is favored by business producers who wish to gather an entire field immediately, or scraper cultivators keen on canning. Vague sorts are favored by home cultivators and nearby market ranchers who need ready organic product all through the season [9].

The tomato organic product is named berry. The organic product size shifts from little cherry sort with just two divisions of the ovary (locules) to extensive multi-locular beefsteak sort. In spite of the fact that varieties in shading, flavor, size and state of tomatoes exist in the present assortments, no single assortment can fulfill the inclinations for these characters of distinctive target bunches. In this way, quality parameters must be set for investigating so as to reproduce new market tomatoes the inclinations of diverse shopper bunches [10]. Shoppers measure the nature of tomato organic product fundamentally by three variables: physical appearance (size, shading, shape, deserts and rot), immovability and flavor. A study was directed to think about the customer inclination of tomato for distinctive quality parameters, for example, shading, shape, size and taste. In tomato reproducing, significant endeavors have been set on yield, organic product size, natural product appearance (absence of imperfections and appealing shading), infection safe and all the more as of late organic product immovability and time span of usability [11].

Tomato assortments can be ordered by their utilization. For example, plum tomatoes are utilized for canning and have thick fragile living creature and lessened measure of mash. Beefsteak tomatoes are substantial furthermore have decreased mash, which makes them astounding for sandwiches and sauces. Fantastic or serving of mixed greens tomatoes are succulent, since they have a great deal of mash, yet this tends to fall session when they are cut. Most applicable characteristics of tomatoes fluctuate contingent upon their planned use: taste, appearance, shading and taking care of trademark are essential for new tomatoes, while consistency and solids are the most vital traits for preparing tomatoes [12]. Alwis et al. [13,14] reported that for curries, 47% customers favored red-shaded natural products, while by 39% favored red organic products for sandwiches; dull red-hued natural products were favored by 49% shoppers for servings of mixed greens and 32% for sandwiches separately; 41% favored natural products with medium pericarp thickness while 38% favored meager pericarps. The objective of the present study was to characterize tomato germplasm through morphological traits. This study will be helpful for varietal development, hybrid seed production and identification of desirable genotypes from germplasm.

Materials and Methods

In order to study and evaluate the tomato germplasm, 25 genotypes were grown in glass house in multipots tray at PMAS-AAUR in March 2013. Seed of tomato genotypes was obtained from the gene bank at PGRI, NARC, Islamabad. Three plants of each genotype were grown. After 45days plants are transplanted in well prepared field.

Data Recorded

Data regarding plant inflorescence, flowers and fruit was recorded through visual observation. The parameters for data recording are described below.

Plant characteristics

Plant characteristics for data recording included growth habit, stem pubescence, foliage density, No of leaves below first inflorescence (Table 1).

Accession

Plant Growth Type

Stem Pubescence

Foliage Density

LA-2662

Determinate

Present

Intermediate

LA-2357

Indeterminate

Present

Low

LA-0146

Indeterminate

Present

Low

LA-0172

Indeterminate

Present

Intermediate

LA-2285

Indeterminate

Present

Intermediate

LA-0147

Indeterminate

Present

Low

LA-2711

Semi determinate

Present

Intermediate

LA-2086

Semi determinate

Present

Low

LA-4026

Determinate

Present

High

LA-4025

Determinate

Present

Low

LA-4133

Indeterminate

Present

Intermediate

LA-3207

Indeterminate

Present

High

LA-3120

Determinate

Present

Intermediate

LA-0358

Indeterminate

Present

Intermediate

LA-2973

Indeterminate

Present

Low

6234

Indeterminate

Present

Intermediate

10578

Indeterminate

Present

Intermediate

17860

Indeterminate

Present

High

17862

Determinate

Present

Intermediate

17863

Indeterminate

Present

Intermediate

17865

Indeterminate

Present

High

17867

Semi determinate

Present

Intermediate

17869

Determinate

Present

Intermediate

17878

Indeterminate

Present

Intermediate

17889

Semi determinate

Present

Intermediate

Table 1: Plant Characteristics of tomato.

Inflorescence traits

Inflorescence related traits for data recording included type of inflorescence, no: of inflorescence on main stem, Number of flowers per inflorescence, fruit set per inflorescence, corolla colour, corolla blossom type, petal length, sepal length, stamen length, style position and style hairiness (Table 2a,2b).

Accession

Sepal Length mm

Stamen Length mm

Style Position

Style Hairiness

Number of Inflorescence on Main Stem

LA-2662

7

9

Inserted

Present

6

LA-2357

7

8

same as stamen

Present

12

LA-0146

6

6

same as stamen

Present

9

LA-0172

5

6

Inserted

Present

9

LA-2285

7

5

Exerted

Present

10

LA-0147

7

7

Inserted

Present

11

LA-2711

7

7

Inserted

Present

9

LA-2086

10

10

Inserted

Present

9

LA-4026

5

6

same as stamen

Present

6

LA-4025

6

6

same as stamen

Present

7

LA-4133

3

5

Inserted

Present

8

LA-3207

8

7

same as stamen

Present

10

LA-3120

4

8

same as stamen

Present

8

LA-0358

5

6

Exerted

Present

14

LA-2973

5

6

Inserted

Present

8

6234

6

6

Exerted

Present

13

10578

8

7

Exerted

Present

9

17860

8

5

Exerted

Present

9

17862

16

7

Inserted

Present

7

17863

8

7

same as stamen

Present

9

17865

11

8

same as stamen

Present

5

17867

8

8

same as stamen

Present

8

17869

8

7

same as stamen

Present

7

17878

6

6

Inserted

Present

10

17889

6

8

same as stamen

Present

9

Table 2(a): Inflorescence Traits of Tomato.

Accession

Number of Flowers per Inflorescence

Fruit set per Inflorescence

Type of Inflorescence

Corolla Color

Corolla Blossom type

Petal Length mm

LA-2662

5

High

Uniparous

Yellow

Closed

8

LA-2357

7

High

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

9

LA-0146

8

Low

Multiparous

Yellow

Opened

6

LA-0172

7

Intermediate

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

7

LA-2285

6

Low

Multiparous

Yellow

Opened

8

LA-0147

13

Low

Multiparous

Yellow

Opened

8

LA-2711

6

Low

Multiparous

Yellow

Opened

7

LA-2086

6

Low

Uniparous

Yellow

Closed

14

LA-4026

7

Intermediate

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

6

LA-4025

8

High

Multiparous

Yellow

Opened

10

LA-4133

11

Low

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

8

LA-3207

12

Low

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

9

LA-3120

16

Intermediate

Multiparous

Yellow

Opened

14

LA-0358

11

Intermediate

Multiparous

Yellow

Opened

7

LA-2973

9

Intermediate

Multiparous

Yellow

Opened

9

6234

8

Intermediate

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

7

10578

8

Intermediate

Multiparous

Yellow

Opened

6

17860

7

Low

Multiparous

Yellow

Opened

8

17862

8

Intermediate

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

13

17863

8

Intermediate

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

9

17865

15

Low

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

10

17867

6

Intermediate

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

11

17869

5

Intermediate

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

13

17878

8

High

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

10

17889

11

Intermediate

Uniparous

Yellow

Opened

9

Table 2(b): Inflorescence Traits of Tomato.

Data Analysis

Microsoft office Excel 2010 was used for data analysis. Means of quantitative data and maximum and minimum values were determined. Graphs were obtained for analysis of qualitative characters.

Result and Discussion

Growth habit

Plants with determinate, semi-determinate and indeterminate growth type were observed. Out of 25 accessions, LA-2662, LA-4026, LA-4025, LA-3120, 17862 and 17869 were determinate type, LA-2086, LA-2711, 17867 and 17889 were semi-determinate and remaining 15 were indeterminate type.

Stem pubescence

Stem pubescence was present in all accessions.

Foliage density

High foliage density was observed in LA-4026, LA-3207, 17860 and 17865 while LA-2357, LA0146, LA-0147, LA-2086, LA-4025 and LA-2973 were the genotypes with low foliage density and rest of genotypes have intermediate foliage density.

Style position

LA-2662, LA-0172, LA-0147, LA-2711, LA-2086, LA-4133, LA-2973, 17862 and 17878 have inserted style position, 17860, 10578, 6234, LA-2285 and LA-0358 have exerted style position while remaining have same style position as stamen.

Style hairiness

Style hairiness was present in all genotypes.

Number of inflorescence on main stem

Maximum 14 inflorescence on main stem were recorded in LA-0358 and minimum 5 inflorescence in 17865 were observed.

Sepal length

Maximum sepal length of 16 mm was observed in 17860 and minimum 4 mm in LA-3120.

Stamen length

LA-2086 had maximum stamen length of 10 mm while minimum 5mm stamen length was observed in LA-2285, LA-4133 and 17860.

Petal length

14 mm was the maximum petal length observed in LA-2086 and LA-3120 while minimum 6 mm was observed in LA-0146, LA-4133 and 10578.

Type of inflorescence

LA-0146, LA-2285, LA-0147, LA-2711, LA-4025, LA-3120, LA-0358, LA-2973, 10578 and 17860 have multiparous inflorescence while rest of genotypes have uniparous type inflorescence.

Corolla blossom type

LA-2662 and LA-2086 were found to have closed corolla blossom end and others have opened corolla blossom end.

Corolla colour

All genotypes were found to have yellow corolla colour.

Number of flowers per inflorescence

LA-3120 was found to have maximum 16 flowers per inflorescence, 17865 had 15 and lowest 5 flowers per inflorescence were noted in LA-2662 and 17869.

Fruit set per inflorescence

LA-2662, LA-2357, LA-4025 and 17878 have high fruit set per inflorescence, 17865, 17860, LA-3207, LA-4133, LA-2086, LA-2711, LA-0147, LA-2285, and LA-0146 have low fruit set per inflorescence while remaining genotypes have intermediate fruit set per inflorescence.

Conclusion & Recommendations

The hybrid development in Pakistan is of hour need to assure food security in developing countries like Pakistan. Vegetable crop research program, HRI, NARC, Islamabad started its breeding program with special emphasis of hybrid development in tomato, chili, bitter gourd and cucumber. After a comprehensive breeding efforts made on the development and evaluation of inbred line/ parental lines based on their specific and general combining ability, this program developed no. of hybrids (F1) in the targeted crops mentioned above. In case of tomato special attention was given on field hybrids (determinate), keeping in view the trend of tomato crop cultivation in all over the country under field conditions. In this case almost 16 hybrids (F1) were developed using elite parental lines. These hybrids after passing through observational trials at the vegetable research program were subjected to the preliminary yield trials for their performance in comparison with three international field hybrids (F1) and their parent material. The results of newly developed tomato hybrids (F1) were quite encouraging pertaining to their yield (kg ha-1) and earliness in maturity over the international checks and the parents. It was cleared from the statistical analysis that hybrid yield have the potential to exceed 100% than the commercial cultivars. So, it is concluded that the research work on hybrid development especially in determinate tomatoes is the need of the day to enhance the yield to a great extent at the farmer’s field. Moreover, it is pertinent to mention here that the huge foreign exchange being spent on the import of hybrid seed can be minimized through local hybrid seed production. Likewise tomato, the other vegetables of commercial importance in the country also need such research work for the yield enhancement and also to minimize the cost incurred on the import of hybrid seed every year in these vegetables. This can also bring home huge amount of foreign exchange in country as such types of hybrid tomatoes are having excellent market place in Middle East.

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