Advances in ISSN: 2378-3168AOWMC

Obesity, Weight Management & Control
Mini Review
Special Issue - 2016
Meal Optimization to Reduce Obesity
Akbar Nikkhah*
Department of Animal Sciences, University of Zanjan, Iran
Received: May 25, 2016 | Published: May 26, 2016
*Corresponding author: Akbar Nikkhah, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zanjan, Chief Highly Distinguished Professor, Foremost Principal Highly Distinguished Elite-Generating Scientist, National Elite Foundation, Iran, Email:
Citation: Nikkhah A (2016) Meal Optimization to Reduce Obesity. Adv Obes Weight Manag Controll 4(5): 00105. DOI: 10.15406/aowmc.2016.04.00105

Abstract

This review article elaborates on the significance of meal properties in reducing obesity. Meal properties of importance include timing, size, frequency, and sequence. Reducing meal size, avoiding large evening meals, increasing the circadian meal frequency, and optimizing meal sequence (e.g., balancing vegetable and animal food intake) are all required for minimizing obesity risks in today's busy lifestyles.  

Keywords: Obesity; Meal; Frequency; Timing; Size; Sequence

Discussion

This review article elaborates on the significance of meal properties in minimizing risks of obesity. Meal properties including timing, size, frequency, and sequence play significant roles in preventing and managing obesity. However, no or little (if any) attention has been given to these as a whole [1]. The overly busy lifestyles have greatly contributed to the interrupted public health programs aiming to optimize meal properties altogether. Securing such knowledge is crucial when human suffers from devastating diseases such as cancer and obesity [2-6].

Recent science arisen from optimizing the timing of eating has led to a new insight that morning is a batter time for eating than evening, and thus, evening large meals must be avoided [6-16]. This is mainly due to the circadian properties of human endocrinology and metabolism. Human cells during day are better prepared than overnight for nutrient assimilation and oxidation. In addition, it is thought that waste management takes place more effectively during morning and day time compared to evening and night [17].

Larger meals may cause higher insulin surges that do not lead to healthy metabolism. Larger meals, thus, may greatly enhance the risk of abnormal insulin dynamics, which increase adipogenesis and obesity. Instead, making meals smaller and distributing them over day hours should improve metabolism and health. With smaller meals more frequently taken, hormonal actions do not experience high fluctuations. As a result, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance are less likely to occur. This will reduce the risk of visceral and abdominal obesity. As a result, normal liver function is maintained and immunity does not weaken [18-23].

Meal sequence is a property that has been discussed very insufficiently, maybe because limited information is available. By definition, meal sequence is the order of eating animal (e.g., milk, meat, eggs) and non-animal (e.g., fruits, vegetables, plant products) foods. It is contemplated that including fibrous foods of mainly fruits and vegetables between animal meals and/or non-animal non-fibrous meals can improve nutrient assimilation. This can reduce risks from gut diseases. Adequate plant cell wall intake is necessary for normal gut motility and function. In addition, plant cell walls slow down substrate absorption and help control insulin response. Moreover, plant fibres improve energy metabolism and waste management in both gut and peripheral cells. The latter is required for a cancer-free life [2,17,24-27]. Towards night, meals should, however, be made mainly from vegetables.

Implications

Meals must increase in frequency and decrease in size to support a healthy lifestyle. Timing of food intake must follow evolutionary human endocrinology and metabolism that necessitate avoiding large evening meals and well-distributed small day-time meals. Supportive plant meals containing adequate cell walls from fruits and vegetables must be included between animal-food meals and/or non-animal non-fibre meals.

Acknowledgment

Iran’s Ministry of Science Research and Technology, and National Elite Foundation are thanked for supporting the author’s global programs of optimizing science edification in the new millennium.

References

  1. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) (2003) Applications in Dietary Planning. National Academy Press. p. 51.
  2. Nikkhah A (2015) Establishing rhythmic regularities in cell physiology: A novel global program to thwart cancer. J Nutr Health Food Eng 2(2): 00052.
  3. Nikkhah A (2014) Timing of eating a global orchestrator of biological rhythms: dairy cow nitrogen metabolism and milk fatty acids. Biol Rhythms Res 45(5): 661-670.
  4. Nikkhah A (2015) Secure Weight Management via Fitting Circadian Patterns of Physical Activity, Resting and Eating. Adv Obes Weigh Manag Control 2(4): 00023.
  5. Nikkhah A (2015) Effective Weight Management in Periparturient Women through Optimizing Eating Timing: A Novel Global Approach. Adv Obes Weight Manag Control 2(3): 00018.
  6. Nikkhah A (2015) Circadian Fitting of Exercise and Eating Patterns: The Secret of Healthy Life. J Bioprocess Biotech. 5: e129.
  7. Nikkhah A (2015) Harmonizing Eating and Exercise Circadian Rhythms for Optimal Glucose-Insulin and Vascular Physiology. Int J Diabetol Vasc Dis Res 3(3): 87-88.
  8. Nikkhah A (2015) Discovering the Right Time to Take Food to Smash Diabetes. J Diabetes Res Ther 1.1.
  9. Nikkhah A (2015) Intake Circadian Physiology: An Overlooked Public Health Concern. Endocrinol Metab Synd 4: 153.
  10. Nikkhah A (2014) Perspective: Nutrient Intake Chronophysiology: A Rising Public Health Concern. J Nutr Therap 3(4): 156-157.
  11. Nikkhah A (2012) Eating time modulations of physiology and health: life lessons from human and ruminant models. Iranian J Basic Med Sci 15(4): 787-794.
  12. Nikkhah A (2015) Avoid Large Night Meals to Stay Fit. J Obes Weight Loss Ther 4: e115.
  13. Nikkhah A (2014) Disease Closure through Opening Novel Chrono-Sciences: Bioprocessing of Intermediary Metabolism. J Bioprocess Biotechniq 5: 1.
  14. Nikkhah A (2014) Timing of Eating to Eradicate Diabetes: A Feasible Prescription. J Diabetes Metabolism. 5: 8.
  15. Nikkhah A (2014) When to Eat to Beat Obesity and Diabetes? Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism. 5: 7.
  16. Nikkhah A (2016) Morning Eating and Evening Exercise: Towards an Anti-Cancer Lifestyle. J Cancer Prev Cur Res 4(4): 00127.
  17. Nikkhah A (2015) Matching Substrate Provision and use to Power Cut Oncogenesis. J Cancer Prev Curr Res 3(2): 00071.
  18. Nikkhah A (2016) Feeding the Obese World. Adv Obes Weight Manag Control. In Press.
  19. Nikkhah A (2016) Eating Habits. Adv Obes Weight Manag Control 4(3): 00091.
  20. Nikkhah A (2016) Nutritional Creed. Adv Obes Weight Manag Control. In Press
  21. Nikkhah A (2016) Cutting the Hunger. Adv Obes Weight Manag Control. 4(1): 00077.
  22. Nikkhah A (2015) Synchronized Rhythms of Exercise and Eating: A Novel Public Program to Reduce Maternal and Pediatric Diabetes. Maternal and Paediatric Nutrition Journal 1: e101.
  23. Nikkhah A (2015) Food's Art. J Nutr Health Food Eng 3(1): 00099.
  24. Nikkhah A (2015) Poem of Art. J Nutr Health Food Eng 3(1): 00100.
  25. Nikkhah A (2015) Life is Art. J Nutr Health Food Eng 3(1): 00098.
  26. Nikkhah A (2015) Healthy Life. J Nutr Health Food Eng 3(1): 00095.
  27. Nikkhah A (2015) Nutritional Wisdom. J Nutr Health Food Eng 2(6): 00094.
© 2014-2016 MedCrave Group, All rights reserved. No part of this content may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means as per the standard guidelines of fair use.
Creative Commons License Open Access by MedCrave Group is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://medcraveonline.com
Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version | Opera |Privacy Policy