International Journal of ISSN: 2470-9980IJVV

Vaccines & Vaccination
Volume 2 Issue 3 - 2016
Mucosal Versus Systemic Vaccine
Ibrahim MSAW Shnawa*
University of Qasim, Iraq
Received: June 22, 2016 | Published: June 23, 2016
*Corresponding authors: Ibrahim MSAW Shnawa, College of Biotechnology, University of Qasim, Qasim, Babylon, Iraq, Email:
Citation: Shnawa IM (2016) Mucosal Versus Systemic Vaccine. Int J Vaccines Vaccin 2(3): 00033. DOI: 10.15406/ijvv.2016.02.00033


Immune responses to immunogens (vaccine) time curve in general is graphically represented and partitioned into primary and secondary for humoral immune responses. The primary subdivided in to lag, peak and decline. While secondary needs short lag followed by peak due to memory cell functions and affinity maturation. The cellular basis for these responses starts by the uptake of antigen(s), antigen processing, antigen assembly on APC surface in combination with MHC molecules, immune recognition events which covers naïve helper cell activation, conversion to TH1,TH2 which in turn activate resting B or T to into effect or B, effect or T, memory B or memory T cells [1]. The immune features of mucosal and systemic responses vaccines were depicted in Table 1. The overall events may take around one week for mucosal and around two weeks for the systemic responses [2-4]. These features make mucosal vaccination rather better than systemic vaccination for the benefits of the patients, under risk subjects and contacts [2,3], providing taking in consideration some limitations like, the infection nature, epitope potentials of, immunogenicity, replica-bility and possibility of tolerance induction as in oral mucosa [5].


Mucosal Vaccination

Systemic Vaccination


Linked to systemic in some ways

Linked to mucosal in some ways


Direct to the mucosal site

Mostly indirect to the site


Remains local

Distributed and targeted

Loss in hid , compartment


Relatively no apparent loss

Possible loss

Immune conversion rate in term of time from baseline to vaccinated titer

It takes relatively one week

It take relatively two weeks

Rating antibody - titers in vaccinated

M:S = 1 : 1 -20

S : M = 1 - 20 : 1

Class of antibody

SIgA, leastly IgG

IgM, IgG, IgA

Antibody Structure

Contains secretary ,piece,2ME resistant

No secretory piece,2ME sensitive

Antibody transudation

Systemic transudation in low titers to mucosal compartments

No such transudation from mucosal to systemic.

Immune Protection

Seems to be more protective than systemic, though it depends on the nature of the vaccine

Seems to be less protective than mucosal, though it depends on the nature of the vaccine


Replicable vaccine more protective than non.

As in mucosal

Table 1: Features of mucosal and systemic vaccination program [2-6].


  1. Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S (2015) Cellular and Molecular Immunology. (8th edn), Elsevier, Saunders, Philadelphia, p. 1-12.
  2. Kiyono H, Orga PL, McGhee JR (1996) Mucosal Vaccines. Academic Press, London, p. 3-33.
  3. Kaufmann SHE (2004) Novel Vaccine Strategies. Wiley-VCH, Germany, p. 19-39.
  4. Shnawa IMS (2013) Mucosal Immunology. Lap lambert Academic Publications, Germany.
  5. Shnawa IMS (2015) Oral Immune tolerance versus oral immune silencing; Minireview. Am J Bimed Life Sci 3(4-1): 7-9.
  6. Shnawa IMS (2006) Lapin Systemic versus mucosal humoral immune responses as well as Cellular immune responses following intravenous administration of C. fetus heat killed bacterin: A correlative approach. ALQ J Vet Med Sci 5(1): 47-51.
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