Advances in ISSN: 2373-6402APAR

Plants & Agriculture Research
Volume 4 Issue 3 - 2016
The Importance of Compatibility among Manures and Microbiota in Agricultural Soils
Marcela Claudia Pagano*
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Received: July 25, 2016 | Published: August 04, 2016
*Corresponding author: Marcela Claudia Pagano, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Email:
Citation: Pagano MC (2016) The Importance of Compatibility among Manures and Microbiota in Agricultural Soils. Adv Plants Agric Res 4(3): 00137. DOI: 10.15406/apar.2016.04.00137


Monocultures are widely practiced in the modern commercial and industrial agriculture for animal feed, oil, commercial food products, agro-fuels [1]. Cultivated crops with genetic similarity, same growth patterns and resistant to certain common disease are perfect in the largest commercial agriculture and in terms of reduced costs in the production process [2]. However, it is well known that increased chemical inputs and deleterious effects on the soil ecosystem are not well understood. Toxic chemicals and different plant physiological disorders of modern monoculture destroy the wild ecosystem [3]. Fortunately, different types of manures, wastes, residues, compost and biochar are being tested worldwide (Table 1); however, there is few researches focusing on the compatibility among biofertilizers and soil conditioners together. In spite of the slow adoption of natural soil conditioners by commercial agriculture, organic agriculture, which is increasingly growing, is more interested on the addition of natural residues on horticultural plants and crops. Most crops associate with microorganisms in a mutually beneficial way (simbiosis). Legumes, such as soybean, associate with rhizobial bacteria. Legumes and non-legumes associate with other soil microorganisms, especially with fungi, such as arbuscular mycorrhizas (Glomeromycota), known as natural biofertilizers which establish the mycorrhizosphere [4]. To support sustainable agricultural systems and to deal with the effects of global change, the associated plant-soil microbial communities have been more investigated.

Key words

Number of Journal  Articles

Legume crops + manure


Legumes + AMF


Grapevine + manure


Grapevine + AMF


Olive + manure


Olive + AMF


Maize + manure


Maize + AMF


Soybean + manure


Soybean + AMF


Table 1: Journal articles dealing with symbiotic soil microorganisms and soil conditioners in some important agro-ecosystems.

Database survey conducted on July 2016 (SCOPUS); AMF = arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

The mycorrhizal symbiosis in maize was more studied in several countries worldwide [5] and several research groups devoted to appreciate that symbiosis [6]. Application of compost [7], efficient phosphate solubilizer microorganisms [5,8,9], microbial inoculants [10] and biochar [11] as well as other soil conditioners [12] for crops is increasingly investigated. Agroecosystems of high economic interest such as coffee [13] and olive [14] are in the focus of new technologies for their cultivation including their associated microbiota. To compile and organize results is important to understand the effects of different soil conditioners on crops, and their agricultural implications. Further studies are required to understand the microbiome in crops as well as the effects on agronomical successions and organic matter decomposition.


  1. Evans J (2009) Planted forests: uses, impacts and sustainability. FAO and CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 213.
  2. Pagano MC, Dhar PP (2016) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi under Monoculture Farming: A Review. In: Monoculture Farming: Global Practices, Ecological Impact and Benefits/Drawbacks. Nath TK & O'Reilly P (Ed.), Nova Science Publishers, USA.
  3. Altieri MA (1992) Agroecological foundations of alternative agriculture in California. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 39: 23-53.
  4. Azcón R, (2014) Mycorrhizosphere: The role of PGPR. In: Morte A & Varma A (Eds.) 107-144. Root engineering. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
  5. Pagano MC, Covacevich F (2011)Arbuscular Mycorrhizas in Agroecosystems. In: Fulton SM (Ed.), Mycorrhizal Fungi: Soil, Agriculture and Environmental Implications. Nova Science Publishers, New York, p. 35-65.
  6. Miransari M, Bahrami HA, Rejali F, Malakouti MJ, Torabi H (2007) Using arbuscular mycorrhiza to reduce the stressful effects of soil compaction on corn (Zea mays L.) growth. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39: 8.
  7. Viti C, Tatti E, Decorosi F, Lista E, Rea E, et al. (2010) Compost Effect on Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi Population in Maize Cultivations. Compost Science & Utilization18(4): 273-281.
  8. Bedini S, Avio L, Argese E, Giovannetti M (2007) Effects of long-term land use on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and glomalin-related soil protein. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment120: 463-466.
  9. Imaz PA, Barbieri PA, Echeverría HE, Rozas HRS, Covacevich F (2014) Indigenous mycorrhizal fungi from Argentina increase Zn nutrition of maize modulated by Zn fertilization. Soil Environ 33(1): 23-32.
  10. Pagano MC, Jorio A The contributions of mycorrhizal fungi. In: Microbial Bioresources. Gupta VK, et al. (Eds.), London, UK, p.14-28.
  11. Kumar V (2016) Use of Integrated Nutrient Management to Enhance Soil Fertility and Crop Yield of Hybrid Cultivar of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) Under Field Conditions. Adv Plants Agric Res 4(2): 00130.
  12. Stürmer SL, Siqueira JO (2006) Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Brazilian ecosystems. In: Moreira FMS, et al. (Eds.), Soil biodiversity in Amazonian and other Brazilian ecosystems. CABI-Publications, Wallingford, USA, pp. 206-236.
  13. Bompadre MJ, Colombo R, Molina MCR, Godeas AM, Pardo AG (2014) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Alleviation of Oxidative Stress under Cutting Propagation Management. In: Mycorrhizas: Structure, Development and Functions, Warwick E (Ed.) pp. 181-202.
  14. Brito I, Goss MJ, Carvalho M, Chatagnier O, van Tuinen D (2012) Impact of tillage system on arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal communities in the soil under Mediterranean conditions. Soil & Tillage Research 121: 63-67.
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