International Journal of ISSN: 2470-9980IJVV

Vaccines & Vaccination
Editorial
Volume 2 Issue 5 - 2016
Alzheimer Vaccine: A Theme of Notable Contraversy
Ibrahim MSAW Shnawa*
University of Qasim, Iraq
Received: August 02, 2016| Published: August 29, 2016
*Corresponding author: Ibrahim MSAW Shnawa, College of Biotechnology, University of Qasim, Qasim, Babylon, Iraq, Email:
Citation: Shnawa IM (2016) Alzheimer Vaccine: A Theme of Notable Contraversy. Int J Vaccines Vaccin 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/ijvv.2016.02.00042

Editorial

Ageing genetic and environmental factors are among the basic etiologies of dementia. Dementia are of several types .Among which is the Alzheimer disease (AD) [1].

AD accounts for 60 to 80% of dementia cases. A sum of four genes; Presenilin 1/chromosome 14, Presenilin 2/chromosome 1, Amyloid Precursor protein/chromosome 21, and Apolipoprotein e/chromosome 19 , are responsible for the manifestation of AD which happened in fourth decade of human age [2]. The patho-biology of AD can be briefed as progressive nerve cell death resulting from the accumilation of amyloid protein beta plaques, around nerve cell body and neuro-fibrilar tangles Tau within the axon of the nerve cells [1].

Since about two decades, neuro-scientists and neuro- immnologists have been attempting to develop a vaccine design that might be helpful to prevent and/or treat AD. The primordial AD vaccine has been made from Amyloid Beta protein 2001 and extend to 2013, tau protein 2016, (Jones R, Bath; UK) [3-8]. Variable degrees of foundations that have been ranged from failure to promising in various research groups all-over the world at the level of development and pre-licensed evaluations in laboratory Animals Table 1 [4-8]. Among several groups of research workers, one will initiate preclinical trail phase one within the coming three years [3]. These attempts have been targeting amyloid protein B and tau in separate as prime boost protocol or combined immunogen program with presence of certain adjuvants [3]. The chronology of scientific achievements towards developing AD vaccine design was Mapped in the Table 1 [4-8]. The evaluation parameters for a vaccine were depictedin Table 2 [9] in a comparative manner with an infectious and cancerous disease just to through a light on the core facts of Alzheimer vaccine. As a scientific holdings the B amyloid or tau vaccines as well as their specific monoclonal antibodies gain success in laboratory animal models but in preclinical trials their results is a matter of debates .If the reality is somewhat far from being reached by current days research, one can propose; 1-Initiation of local CNS immune response to clear up amyloid beta and tau., 2-Initiation of glial cell system to engulf the destroyed neuron cells [10-13]. The use of monoclonal antibodies specific for B amyloid and /tau to form complexes with the available complement that can be cleared up through pinocytosis, 4-Initiating apoptosis process [14,15,] to defective neuron cells followed by engulfment by the local resident or migratory macrophages [13]. In case of Alzheimers disease, the need for a vaccine is eligible for both prevention and therapy. The development of preventive vaccine is being of prime importance, followed by the therapeutic vaccine .Hopes that the coming few years, scientists will disclose promising vaccines for both purposes.

Date

Reference

Vaccine Target

Mechanisms

2001

Australian centre of Alzheimers Disease

Passive immunization with immunoglobulin

Success in very small group of eight patients

2001

4

B42 peptide vaccine

Reduce memory loss, amyloid B reduction in mice

2002

5

Beta amyloid reagent .Arc 1792

20% immunized,other20% got brain inflammation

2002

6

Beta amyloid vaccine or its specific antibody

Neutralize the pathogenic effect of beta amyloid

2012

7

B amyloid vaccine design with CAD106

With adjuvant stimulate the immune system to produce immune response

2013

8

B2 peptide, as B cell epitope

Remove B amyloid by phagocytes

2015

Pickett, Alzheimers Society

Tau tangle antigen vaccine

Stimulate the immune system to remove tau tangles

Table 1: Chronology of Alzheimer vaccine achievements.

NIH criteria [9]

Vaccine for a Vaccine Preventable Infectious Disease

Vaccine for a Vaccine Preventable and Treatable Cancer

Vaccine for Alzheimer Disease

Understanding disease

Understandable

Relatively understandable

Observable understanding

Understanding disease agent

Understandable

Viral, genetic, environmental

Observable; aging, genetic and environmental

Developing vaccine candidate;
Safety
Identity
Antigenicity
Immunogenicity

Safe
Identical
Antigenic
Immunogenic

Safe
Identical
Antigenic,
Adoptive
immunogenic

Safe
Identical
Antigenic
immunogenic

Testing Vaccine in Human volunteers Phase I;
safety Phase II;
Safety,
Immunogenicity Phase III;
Safety Immunogenicity Effectivity

Safe,
Safe,
Immunogenic,
Safe,
Immunogenic,
Effective

Safe,
Safe,
Immunogenic,
Safe,
Immunogenic,
Effective?

Safe?
Safe?
Immunogenic Safe?
Immuno-Genic,
Effective?

Table 2: Comparative View to Vaccine criteria for concern of Alzheimer vaccine.

References

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alzheimer%27s_disease
  2. Best B (2013) Alzheimers Disease: Molecular mechanisms.
  3. DavtyanH, ZagorskiK, RagapakshH, Hovakimyan A, Davtyan A, et al. Alzheimer's disease Advax(CpG)-adjuvanated MultiTEP. Based dual and single vaccine induce high titre antibodies against various forms of tau and AB pathological molecules. Sci Rep 6: 28912.
  4. Growdn JH (2015) A Guide TO Cop with ALzheimers Disease, Harvard Health Publications.
  5. Janus C, Phinney AL, Chisti MA, Westawy D (2001) New development in animal model of Alzheimer disease. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 1(5): 451-457.
  6. Vickers JC (2002) A vaccine against Alzheimer disease, development to date. Drug Aging 9(7): 497-494.
  7. Wisniewski T (2012) Active Immunotherapy of Alzheimer Disease. The Lancet Neurology 11(7): 571-572.
  8. Lambarcht W, Rosenberg RN (2013) Advances in the development of vaccine for Alzheimers disease. Discov Med 15(84): 319-326.
  9. NIH (1998) Understanding Vaccines.
  10. Shapshak MA, Shapshak P, Fujimura R, Ownby R, Heyes M, Eisdorfer C (2002) J Neuroscie 202(1-2):13-23.
  11. Finch CE, Morgan TE, Rozovsky I, Xie Z, Weindruch R, et al. (2002) Microglia and ageing in the brain. In: Streit WJ (eds.) , Microglia in regenerating and degenerating central nervous system, Spriger-Verlag, Germany, pp. 275-305.
  12. Rock RB, Gekker G, Hu S, Sheng WS, Cheeran M, et al. (2004) Role of microglia in central nervous system Infections. Clin Micribiol Rev 17(4): 942-964.
  13. Kreutzberg W (1996) Microglia:Sensor for pathological Events in central nervous system. Trends Neurosci 19(8): 312-318.
  14. Mattson MP (2000) Apoptosis in neurodegeneration disorders. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 1(2): 120-130.
  15. Elmore S (2007) Apoptosis: A Review of program cell death. Toxicol pathol 35(4): 495-516.
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