Journal of ISSN: 2377-4282JNMR

Nanomedicine Research
Opinion
Volume 5 Issue 1 - 2017
Cellular Functions Analyses Based on Nanorobotics
Shayan Shahsavari*
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Iran
Received: December 13, 2016 | Published: January 09, 2017
*Corresponding author: Shayan Shahsavari, Mataab Company, Biotechnology Incubator, Research and Production Complex, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Karaj, Alborz, Iran, Tel: +989168642581; Email:
Citation: Shahsavari S (2017) Cellular Functions Analyses Based on Nanorobotics. J Nanomed Res 5(1): 000101. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2017.05.00101

Opinion

Abnormal changes in cellular behavior and fate can lead to diseases such as cancer [1]. Even, a single malignant cell can start multistage tumor formation process. Genetical and external factors are the reasons for the tumor genesis. Early diagnosis methods have been developed for detection of cancer risk agents [2]. For this aim, scientists have emphasized to find ways for accurate analysis of biomolecular changes that facilitate efficient therapy of cancer. The knowledge about tumor environment and the progress of the strategies for cancer prevention is necessary for cancer treatments. Many types of cancer could be inhibited by utilization of single-cell monitoring and manipulation. Remote controlling of cells by nanorobotic is a novel idea. This approach could be applied for multimodal purposes such as imaging, diagnosis, and therapy. The controlled release of bioagents and the local treatment are the ultimate goal of this field of research. However, biological environments are the final places for nanorobots. The past studies such as DNA nanomachines, supramolecular nanorobots, and self-powered microrobots, have not been employed in vivo [3-5].

Recently, Miyako group reported a new type of nano transporters that made of a liposome that decorated by a composition of carbon nanohorns (CNHs) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) (Figure 1). This structure permeated into cells by a Neodymium magnet. Nano transporters not only could be moved by the magnetic field but also can be stimulated by NIR laser to control the release of liposome contains at a target place in organisms. This hybrid system has provided opportunities for analyses of biomolecular processes in organisms. As an achievement, enzymatic reaction controlled in the cancerous cells in vitro and transgene mice model in vivo [6]. β-galactosidase (β-Gal) is an enzyme that often over expressed in primary colorectal, breast, andovarian cancers [7]. The existence of this substance could be monitored by an enzymatic reaction in living cells. So, non-fluorescent fluorescein di-β-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) was loaded inside liposome part of the system.

FDG release from the thermo sensitive hybrid was controlled by NIR-Laser irradiation to the target site. FDG was hydrolyzed by β-Gals that produce fluorescein inside cell as a green fluorescent agent. Also, laser sharp focus could lead to single cell monitoring. Finally, transgenic CG mice over expressing human β-Gal in the whole body were studied. Nanorobots were intravenously injected to mice and accumulated in the blood vessels of mice ear by a magnetic field. FDG was released because of laser irradiation and was hydrolyzed by β-Gal rich environment. So, the green fluorescence was observed, and the reaction monitored in vivo [6].

There are many types of biomarkers such as glutathione transferases [8] and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase [9] that can be traced by a similar method. This technology can be applied for innovative transport of various molecules. This system is promising of a new generation of active targeting drug delivery systems and optochemical genetic agents.

Figure 1: The nano transporter schematic illustration [6].

References

  1. Weinberg R (2013) The biology of cancer. (2nd edn), Garland science, USA.
  2. Hamdan MH (2007) Cancer biomarkers: analytical techniques for discovery. Wiley, USA, p. 25.
  3. Yurke B, Turberfield AJ, Mills AP, Simmel FC, Neumann JL (2000) A DNA-fuelled molecular machine made of DNA. Nature 406(6796): 605-608.
  4. Sengupta S, Ibele ME, Sen A (2012) Fantastic Voyage: Designing Self‐Powered Nanorobots. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 51(34): 8434-8445.
  5. Sanchez S, Ananth AN, Fomin VM, Viehrig M, Schmidt OG (2011) Superfast motion of catalytic microjet engines at physiological temperature. Journal of the American Chemical Society 133(38): 14860-14863.
  6. Chechetka SA, Yuba E, Kono K, Yudasaka M, Bianco A, et al. (2016) Magnetically and Near‐Infrared Light‐Powered Supramolecular Nanotransporters for the Remote Control of Enzymatic Reactions. Angewandte Chemie 128(22): 6586-6591.
  7. Asanuma D, Sakabe M, Kamiya M, Yamamoto K, Hiratake J, et al. (2015) Sensitive β-galactosidase-targeting fluorescence probe for visualizing small peritoneal metastatic tumours in vivo. Nat Commun 6: 6463.
  8. Zhang J, Shibata A, Ito M, Shuto S, Ito Y, et al. (2011) Synthesis and characterization of a series of highly fluorogenic substrates for glutathione transferases, a general strategy. Journal of the American Chemical Society 133(35): 14109-14119.
  9. Urano Y, Sakabe M, Kosaka N, Ogawa M, Mitsunaga, M, et al. (2011) Rapid cancer detection by topically spraying a γ-glutamyltranspeptidase-activated fluorescent probe. Sci Transl Med 3(110): 110ra119.
© 2014-2016 MedCrave Group, All rights reserved. No part of this content may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means as per the standard guidelines of fair use.
Creative Commons License Open Access by MedCrave Group is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://medcraveonline.com
Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version | Opera |Privacy Policy