Journal of ISSN: 2469 - 2786 JBMOA

Bacteriology & Mycology: Open Access
Research Article
Volume 4 Issue 1 - 2017
Diversity of Macrofungi on Wood in Forest Nature Reserve of Bojonglarang Jayanti Cianjur West Java
Betty Mayawatie Marzuki*, Nia Rossiana and Normanita
Department of Biology, FMIPA University of Padjadjaran, Indonesia
Received: December 13, 2016 | Published: January 12, 2017
*Corresponding author: Betty Mayawatie Marzuki, Department of Biology, FMIPA University of Padjadjaran, Indonesia, Email:
Citation: Marzuki BM, Rossiana N, Normanita (2017) Diversity of Macrofungi on Wood in Forest Nature Reserve of Bojonglarang Jayanti Cianjur West Java. J Bacteriol Mycol Open Access 4(1): 00080. DOI: 10.15406/jbmoa.2017.04.00080

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the Diversity of macrofungi growing on wood substrates in Block Cisela Lowland Forest Nature Reserve Bojonglarang Jayanti, Cianjur, West Java.Fungi is a nucleated organisms, sporated, lacking chlorophyll and its cell wall composed of cellulose or chitin. Wood is a good habitat for mold growth. This research was conducted in may 2015 using roaming method by exploring the entire region along 300-meter transect line, left to right along 5 meter and 5 meter length. Field data capture was done by establishing 5 stations. The results of the researchwhich has been conducted provided 19 types of fungi that grow on timber substrate, namely, Auricularia polytricha, Boletinellus merulioides, Campanella junghuhnii, Favolaschia cyatheae, Ganoderma lucidum, Marasmiellus Candidus, Marasmiellus ramealis, Marasmiellus sp., Microporus xanthopus, Phellinus noxious, Polyporus alveolar, Polyporus, arcularius Polyporus melanopus, tenuiculus Polyporus, Schizophyllum sp., Trametes sp., Trametes versicolor, Tyromyces chioneus, xylaria apiculata, xylaria hypoxylon,Trametes versicolor mushrooms were found most often at every station.

Keywords: Macrofungi; Wood substrates; Nature reserve bojonglarang jayanti; Diversity

Introduction

Astronomically, Indonesia is an archipelago located between 6ºLU-11ºLS and 95ºBT-141ºBT. Based on the location, Indonesia has a tropical climate, the characteristics of which has high rainfall, the sun shines throughout the year, humidity is quite high and has a large tropical rain forests. One area in West Java which have tropical rain forest vegetation is Bojonglarang Jayanti reserve nature forests.

Geographically, Bojonglarang Jayanti Preserve Forest is in South Cianjur of West Java Province, precisely between: 7º 29 '12 - 7º 30' 11 "LS and 107 º 25 '13 107 º 25' 12" BT. Natural boundaries to the length of 2.65 km, 13.63 km length of artificial boundaries, administratively located in two villages namely Cidamar and Karang Wangi, Kecamatan Cidaun, in the north, east and part of the west bordering with Karang wangi village, the west partially borders with Cidamar village District of Cianjur Regency Cidaun, the south borders with the Indonesian Ocean (BKSDA, 2012). Topography of this area is relatively flat with a height of 0-7 meters above sea level. The climate according to Scamidt and Ferguson, include in type B with an average rainfall of 2,645 mm per year.

Bojonglarang Jayanti Nature Forest Reserve is a tropical rain forest where the forest is dominated by large trees that form a canopy layers (layering) solid and tight. Canopy that so dense and tight will prevent the entry of sunlight so that the intensity of the sunlight can reach the forest floor slightly, consequently the forest become moist. The more solid and dense canopy, the less intensity of light that received by forest floor and humidity levels will be higher. Humid forest conditions supported by many wood had rotted, providing good opportunities for species that do not require much sunlight can thrive. Species that can tolerate with these conditions is the fungus, it is according to the opinion of Alexopoulous & Mims [1] Environmental conditions like this is very suitable for the growth of fungus.

Fungus is a nucleated organisms, spore, lacking chlorophyll and its cell wall composed of cellulose or chitin [2]. The fungus is one class of organisms that helped enrich the biodiversity of forests in Indonesia, and has many important functions in the biogeochemical cycles, nutrient cycling, decomposer, symbiosis with trees and other plants, and as the causative agent of disease in plants and animals Barnes et al. [3]; Banerjee D [4]. In addition, there are also fungi that are beneficial to humans for example, as a food ingredient (edible mushroom) for example Pleurotus ostreatus, Auricularia polytrichha, Lantinus edodes, as a medicinal ingredient example Ganoderma lucidum, poisonous fungus group for example Amanita muscaria and some fungus of unknown function examples Agaricus deserticola seen from the size, consisting of macroscopic and microscopic fungus Mueller GM et al. [5]; Ostry et al. [6].

Macro fungi or macroscopic fungi are fungus which has the body of a large-sized fruit. This fungus is often found in the trees that were uprooted, sersah or on rotten wood [2]. Weathered wood is a good habitat for fungi to grow considering the timber can retain moisture and contains lignocellulose rich in nutrients for the fungus that allows the fungus to grow on wood habitats. Kim et al. [7] given vegetation Forest Cisela Nature Reserve Bojonglarang Jayanti West Java has the potential to overgrown macro fungi while the presence of the fungus macroscopic especially fungi that have potential in the area of ​​ Cisela Forest, Nature Reserve Bojonglarang Jayanti West Java has not received attention, therefore, research variety of fungi macroscopic grow on wood as well as potentially in the field of Pharmaceutical Industry and health needs to be done.

Objective

To know the diversity of macroscopic fungi that grows on decayed wood and fungi species that could potentially determine the Pharmaceutical Industry and Health.

Materials and Methods

Study area

The study was conducted at the Forest Nature Reserve Bojonglarang Jayanti West Java (Figures 1 & 2).

Methods

Methods used in this study is the exploration method (roaming), assisted by the transect line along 300m, 15 meters to the left and 15 meters to the right of the transect line. The area of ​​study is divided into 5 observation station, each width observation station (60m x 30m) Ansori et al. [8].

Figure 1: Location Map of Observation Cisela Forest Nature Reserve Bojonglarang Jayanti, Cianjur, West Java.
Figure 2: Macrofungi distribution map that grows on the wood substrate Cisela Forest Nature Reserve Bojonglarang Jayanti, Cianjur, West Java.

Materials

FAA (90 ml of 96% alcohol solution, 5 ml of glacial acetic acid, and 5 ml formaldehyde) Melzer's solution, Congo Red, Potassium hydroxide (KOH 3-5%), Phloxine.

Procedures

  1. Determine areas that will be come to the location of the research.
  2. Creating transect line along 300m, observations were made along the transect line with a width of 15 meters to the left and 15 meters to the right. Divided into 5 observation stations.
  3. The Fungus that were found to be taken by repeal parts of the body as a whole fruit (pileus, stipe).
  4. Observe and record the macroscopic characteristics include size, shape, color, texture of the main part of fungal bodies (pileus, stipe, volva, rings) found in each observation station, and documenting.
  5. Funguss are placed in the collection box and close it tightly so that evaporation does not occur.
  6. The Funguss that were found being isolated, made dry kolesi, made wet colection [9].

Procedures fungal isolation

  1. The Fungus that were found to take the pileus.
  2. Cleaned of dirt with distilled water.
  3. Rinse with alcohol 70%.
  4. Rinse with sterile akuades.
  5. Put into petridish containing PDA (potato dextrose agar).
  6. Brood(Incubation) until myselium grow.
  7. Repeat cultivation on PDA to obtain pure isolates.

Procedures of wet collection

  1. Setting up the FAA solution (90 ml of 96% alcohol solution, 5 ml of glacial acetic acid, and 5 ml formaldehyde).
  2. Cleaning fungus that were found by means of rinsing with distilled water.
  3. Cleaned Fungus inserted into the zam bottle already containing FAA solution, until the Fungus body submerged. close tightly.
  4. Attach the label paper, write the name of the collector, the name of the species, sampling date and sampling locations.

Procedures of dry collection

  1. The Fungus that were found being cleaned of dirt.
  2. Being dried by oven dried until they actually dry. Drying process performed after record macroscopic characteristics.
  3. To get a good drying results, Fungus dried using an oven until Fungus get dried.
  4. The drying results Partially stored for dry collection of and partly to proceed to the identification step.
  5. Recording of the Microscopic characters can be done in laboratory using several solutions, among others Melzer's solution, Congo Red, Potassium hydroxide (KOH 3-5%), Phloxine A (1%), and Cotton Blue.

 Note: Manufacture spore print and color can be done when the fungus in fresh condition and is done by cutting the hood pieces and placed on a black and white paper. Closure is done so that moisture of hood is maintained and spores will fall on black and white paper.The color of the spores can be seen after 5-24 hours later.

Data analysis

Data were analyzed with descriptive methods.

Results and Discussion

Result on the Diversity of Macro fungi on wood in Nature Forest Reserve of Bojonglarang Jayanti West Java in five observations station produced species of macro fungi that grow on timber substrate (Table 1), species of macro fungi are potentially in Pharmaceutical Industry and Health (Table 2), physical data location of the observation (Table 3).

No

Species

Station

 

1

 

Auricularia polytricha

1

2

3

4

5

v

2

Boletinellus merulioides

v

3

Campanella junghuhnii

v

4

Favolaschia cyatheae

v

5

Ganoderma lucidum.

v

v

6

Marasmiellus candidus

v

7

Marasmiellus ramealis

v

8

Microporus xanthopus

v

9

Phellinus noxius

v

10

Polyporus alveolaris

v

11

Polyporus arcularius

v

12

Polyporus melanopus

v

v

13

Polyporus tenuiculus

v

14

Schizophyllum sp.

v

v

15

.Trametes versicolor

v

v

v

v

16

Trametes sp

v

v

17

Tyromyces chioneus

v

18

Xylaria apiculata

v

v

v

19

Xylaria hypoxylon

v

Total Species on each station

5

6

8

6

3

Table 1: Makrofungi Species that Growing on Wood Substrates on Five Observation Station Bojonglarang Jayanti Nature Forest Reserve, West Java.

No

Species

Station

1

2

3

4

5

1

Auricularia polytricha

v

2

Ganoderma lucidum.

v

v

3

Polyporus alveolaris

v

4

Schizophyllum sp.

v

v

5

Trametes versicolor

v

v

v

v

Table 2: Macrofungi Species that Potential in the Pharmaceutical Industry and Health that Grow On Wood Substrates on five observation station Cisela Nature Forest Reserve Bojonglarang Jayanti, West Java.

Physical Data

Station

1

2

3

4

5

Altitude (mdpl)

53.54

49.4

66.1

61

77.1

Air humidity %

80-82

78-80

78-83

79-85

80-88

Temperature (oC)

28.1-30.1

27.6-28.4

27-28.4

26.5-29.5

28.3-28.8

Table 3: Physical Data Cisela Nature Forest Reserve Bojonglarang Jayanti western Java.

Based on result of observations Table1 was found nineteen (19) types (species) of fungi which are Auricularia polytricha, Boletinellus merulioides, Campanella junghuhnii, Favolaschia cyatheae , Ganoderma sp, Marasmiellus candidus, Marasmiellus ramealis, Microporus xanthopus , Phellinus noxius , Polyporus alveolaris, Polyporus arcularius, Polyporus melanopus, Polyporus tenuiculus, Schizophyllum sp,Trametes sp, Trametes versicolor, Tyromyces chioneus, Xylaria apiculata, Xylaria hypoxylon, Trametes versicolor mushrooms were found most often at every station.

At Station 1 found five species of fungi, namely Boletinellus merulioides, Trametes sp, Trametes versicolor, Microporus xanthopus and Polyporus melanopus.

At Station 2 found six species of fungi, namely, Trametes sp Tramete, versicolor, Schizophyllum, Ganoderma sp , Tyromyces chioneus and Xylaria apiculata.

At Station 3 found 8 species of fungi, namely Yaitu Trametes sp.,Polyporus melanopus, Ganoderma, Xylaria apiculata,Schizophyllum sp., Marasmiellus candidus, Phellinus noxius and Favolaschia cyatheae.

Station 4 found six species of fungus, namely Trametes sp, Xylaria apiculata, Polyporus arcularius, Polyporus alveolaris, Marasmiellus ramealis and Campanella junghuhnii.

At Station 5 found three species of fungi, namelyXylaria hypoxylon sp. 21, Auricularia polytrichaand Polyporus tenuiculus.

Based on the study literature from nine teen (19) types (species) fungi are found, there are 5 species of fungi are potentially in Pharmaceutical Industry and Health namely:Auricularia polytricha, Ganoderma lucidum, Polyporus alveolaris, Schizophyllum sp, Trametes versicolor species.

Division

Familia

Species

Division
Ascomycota

Xylariaceae

Xylaria apiculata

Class Sordariomycetes

Xylaria hypoxylon

Order Xylariales

Division Basidiomycota

Polyporaceae

Trametes sp.

Class Agaricomycetes

Trametesversicolor

Order Polypolares

Microporus xanthopus

Polyporus melanopus

Tyromyces chioneus

Polyporus arcularius

Polyporus alveolaris

Polyporus tenuiculus

Ganodermataceae

Ganoderma lucidum

Order Agaricales

Schizophyllaceae

Schizophyllum sp

Marasmiaceae

Marasmiellus candidus

Marasmiellus ramealis

Campanella junghuhnii

Mycenaceae

Favolaschia cyatheae

Order Hymenochaetales

Hymenochaetaceae

Phellinus noxius

Order Auriculariales

Auriculariaceae

Auriculariapolytricha

Table 4: Classification of Makrofungi that Grow On Wood Substrates in Cisela Nature Forest Reserve Bojonglarang Jayanti.

No

Species Name

Description

1

A. polytricha

Fungus that can be consumed (edible mushroom) medicine for: sore throat, worming, lowering blood sugar, narrowing of the arteries, high blood pressure. lowering cholesterol levels and anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti bat cardiovascular

2

G. lucydum

Ingredients anti breast, prostate cancer drug

3

P.alveolaris

Inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea

4

Schizophyllum

Causing lung disease

5

T. versicolor

Anti cancer

Table 5: Macrofungi Species that Grow On Wood Substrates on five observation station in the Nature Forest Preserve Bojonglarang Jayanti West Java that have potention in Pharmaceutical Industry and Health and usefulness.

Discussion

Each observation station ove rgrown Fungus species. The number of fungal species that are found in every observation stations have different numbers, depending on the environmental conditions at each observation station, especially habitat for fungi to grow. Station 3 is station most abundant species of fungi, ie 8 species, this is due to the station 3 are found rotten wood and fallen trees supported by temperature and humidity appropriate, whereas light intensity at station 3 exceeds the intensity optimum, this condition is the habitat relatively good for the growth of fungi according to opinion of Bills et al. [10], decayed wood is one of the good habitat for fungi growth considering the wood can absorb water and maintain the moisture around it, and contains lignocellulose-rich nutrients for fungi. Station 5 is the least station discovered species of Fungus that is three (3) species. Temperature sampling sites ranged from 26,5ËšC-30,1ËšC, 93.4 to 442 lux light intensity and humidity ranges from 78% -87%, so in fact the environmental conditions that favor the growth of fungi in that location, but because of habitat for the growth of fungi less available where environmental conditions station 5 is dominated by tall trees and shrubs were still alive, so it is not found rotted wood or wood from a fallen tree. Group macroscopic fungi can basically be grown in places with low light intensity and high humidity supported with suitable habitat Lincoff [11]; Sibounnavong et al. [12].

Conclusion

Diversity of macrofungi research results on wood decay in Nature Forest Reserve of Bojonglarang Jayanti Cianjur, West Java generate 23 species fungus that grows on decaying wood and 7 species of macro fungi usefull in the field of Pharmaceutical Industry and Health.

Acknowledgement

This research was financially supported by Academic Leadership Grant of Padjadjaran University. The authors thank especially to all side that already provide support in all activities undertaken by our team, to the Party Nature Reserve Bojonglarang Jayanti and Karangwangi Villagers who have given permission and assistance during the activity.

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