International Journal of IJRRT

Radiology & Radiation Therapy
Research Article
Volume 2 Issue 2 - 2017
Top Ten Cancers’ Incidence Assessment in South Sindh’s Cancer Hospital
Fayaz Hussain Mangi, Naeem Ahmed Laghari, Sajjad Ahmed Memon* and Nosheen Zehra
Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA), Jamshoro, Pakistan
Received: November 10, 2016 | Published: February 09, 2017
*Corresponding author: Sajjad Ahmed Memon, Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA), Jamshoro, Pakistan, Tel: 92-300-3055291; Email:
Citation: Mangi FH, Laghari NA, Memon SA, Zehra N (2017) Top Ten Cancers’ Incidence Assessment in South Sindh’s Cancer Hospital. Int J Radiol Radiat Ther 2(2): 00019. DOI: 10.15406/ijrrt.2017.02.00019

Abstract

Background: In developing countries, more than 5 million in cancer cases annual increase has been seen and this non communicable disease is increasing due to adoption of cancer associated lifestyle choices (diet styles, physical activity reduction and use of betelnut, pan, gutka, tobacco. This study was conducted to investigate out the top ten cancers registered at Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA) Jamshoro Pakistan.

Materials and Methods: NIMRA is one of PAEC’s (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission) healthcare facility for diagnostic, therapeutic facility for various malignancies. Total 15854 patients were included in this study from 2008 to 2014 registered at NIMRA. From which males were 8032 and females were 7822 (approximately equal ratio). The mean age for males and females were 50±9 and 46±8 year respectively.

Results: The data shows that the most common tumour in males was head & neck and breast carcinoma was top malignancy in females. Carcinoma of lung was second in males whereas head and neck was on second position. The third top carcinoma in males was in ca. liver and in females at third was gyneacological cancer.

Discussion: The trend of rising cancer incidence in Pakistan can be linked with socio-economic conditions of population, nutritional insufficiency, dietary changing habits, decrease in physical activities and use of betelnut, pan, tobacco.

Conclusion: The most of patients registered at NIMRA presented in very high stages so the launching of cancer detection campaign and initiating a cancer control program is vital.

Keywords: Gyneacological; Cancer; Betelnut; Pan; Tobacco; Tumour; Breast carcinoma; Westernized diets; Patients; Deadly disease; Health; Radiotherapy; Pakistan; Research; Dietary

Introduction

In developing countries, the annually increase of more than 5 million in cancer cases has been observed and it is estimated that more than 15 million new cases of cancer will be reported by 2020 every year [1]. This non communicable deadly disease became a serious threat to health in many Asian countries and needs utmost encounter [2,3]. From its intendance in 1947 to present date, Pakistan faces high increase in incidence of cancer [4]. This burden of cancer is increasing due to adoption of cancer associated lifestyle choices like changing of diets style (westernized diets), less physical activity and smoking [5].

Although the accurate statistics on occurrence of this deadly disease and outcome are necessary for the planning and evaluation of existing schema for the purposes of cancer control and for research methodology [6] but in Pakistan no extensive database available and only hospital based figures are available [7]. This study was carried out to explore out the number of top ten cancers recorded at Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA) Jamshoro Pakistan.

Materials and Methods

NIMRA Jamshoro Pakistan is one of healthcare facility has skills of diagnosis, treatment of malignant disorders and is capable to do research on these lethal diseases under sanctuary umbrella of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). The objective of building the nuclear medical institutes by PAEC is to diagnose and treat the malignant ailment and to adopt & apply latest research trends for the cancer management.

For this study total 15854 patients enrolled from 2008 to 2014 at NIMRA were included from which male patients were 8032 (50.66%) and female patients accounted were 7822 (49.34%) with approximately equal ratio as shown if Figure 1. The mean age at presentation for males was 50±9 and for females was a 46±8 year.

Figure 1: Graphical distribution of carcinomas in both sexes (male and female).

Results

The attended patients from the period of 07 years (2008 to 2014) are summarized in Tables 1 & 2 separately for each of gender and graphically represented in Figures 2 & 3. Combine data for both sexes has been illustrated in Table 3 & Figure 4. Facts and figures show the share of ten commonest malignancies in either sex. The first most commonest tumour in males was head and neck whereas it contributes in females at second top position. In females breast carcinoma was on the top in malignancies whereas in males it was least common. Ca. lung and ca. liver hold second and third places in males and in females, ca. lung and ca. liver were on sixth and fifth place respectively. In females gyneacological cancer is on third place whereas ca. oesophagus hold fourth place and in males ca. oesophagus is on eighth place.

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Total

Head & Neck

140

192

315

337

317

336

412

2049

Lung

89

104

162

107

118

95

92

767

Liver

54

62

124

102

65

83

72

562

Lymphoma

25

48

78

71

81

57

36

396

Urinary Tract

40

23

60

68

48

67

53

359

Colorectal

27

29

43

51

56

61

41

308

Leukemia

23

27

28

53

40

35

18

224

Oesophagus

16

28

33

42

37

37

26

219

Prostate

27

15

37

35

32

31

36

213

Brain

1

24

22

31

20

21

23

142

Table 1: Top ten malignancies in males.

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Total

Breast

260

265

293

265

259

288

319

1949

Head & Neck

102

128

246

220

196

225

166

1283

Gynea

85

107

147

153

141

157

159

949

Oesophagus

34

45

65

89

70

68

53

424

Liver

27

19

38

34

23

36

11

188

Lung

21

18

34

38

24

23

25

183

Colorectal

12

13

30

36

31

28

30

180

Lymphoma

18

15

38

27

35

17

24

174

Urinary Tract

15

16

32

27

29

22

16

157

Leukemia

12

20

26

24

28

24

13

147

Table 2: Top ten malignancies in females.

Male

Female

Head & Neck

2049

1283

3332

Breast

52

1949

2001

Lung

767

183

950

Gynea

0

949

949

Liver

562

188

750

Oesophagus

219

424

643

Lymphoma

396

174

570

Urinary Tract

359

157

516

Colorectal

308

180

488

Leukemia

224

147

371

Brain

142

73

215

Prostate

213

0

213

Table 3: Overall combined data of reported carcinomas.

Figure 2: Graphical representation of carcinomas in males (yearwise).
Figure 3: Graphical representation of carcinomas in females (yearwise).
Figure 4: Graphical presentation of carcinomas in both genders (male and female).

Discussion

The cancer data from one tertiary care cancer institute is presented here and it may be possible that the numerals may differ from other Institutional Figure 5 [7]. The rising tendency of cancer incidence in Pakistan can be linked with low socio-economic conditions, lack of nutrition, changes in dietary habits, decreasing physical activity and increasing trend of betelnut, pan chewing, tobacco etc. use [1]. In current study, the first most commonest tumour in males was head and neck whereas it contributes in females at second top position as also reported by Hanif et al. [7].

Figure 5: Graphical presentation of percentagewise carcinomas in both genders (male and female).

The researchers [8-22] revealed that the extensive use of betelnut, pan, gutka, tobacco in any form either in smoked (cigarette, biddi) or chewable form (naswar, nass) may raise the risk of cancer of head and neck specially carcinoma of oral cavity. The breast carcinoma was found most frequent females in this study and as data contributed by Bhurgri Y et al. [23-25] and WHO (World Health Organization [26].

Conclusion

The incidence of cancer rise may be prevented by controlling dietary habits, avoiding the usage of betelnut, gutka, pan, tobacco in any form as cigarette/biddi (smoked) or naswar/nass (chewable), minimal usage of preservative food material and least amount of pesticides spraying on crops as suggested by Yasmin Bhurgri [1]. The most of reported cases at NIMRA are presented with advance stage. The reasons behind late reporting of carcinomas at tertiary care hospitals are low socioeconomic status of population, literacy etc. as reported by Zeb A [27], so it is indeed the words of the time that the campaign must be launched for detection of cancer in early stage and an effective program should be launched for early detection of the cancer & control on it.

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